5: Physiology of taste and smell Flashcards Preview

ENT Week 1 2017/18 > 5: Physiology of taste and smell > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5: Physiology of taste and smell Deck (34)
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1

What are the receptors for taste and smell?

Chemoreceptors

2

In general, how do poisons taste and smell?

Bad

to encourage you not to ingest it

Acids taste SOUR

Toxins taste BITTER

3

What are the sensory organs of taste?

Taste buds

4

What are the chemoreceptors found in taste buds?

Taste receptor cells

5

Taste receptor cells have a short life span of ___ days.

10

6

Which type of nerve fibres are found in the sensory receptor cells of the taste buds?

Afferent nerves

7

Where are the taste buds found?

Tongue

Palate

Epiglottis

Pharynx

8

Which tongue papillae have taste buds?

Fungiform (anterior), vallate (border) and foliate (fringes)

Filiform (middle) DO NOT

9

Which cranial nerve supplies taste for the

anterior 2/3rds

posterior 1/3rd

of tongue?

Chorda tympani branch of CN VII

CN IX

10

What change in potential does the binding of chemicals to taste buds cause?

Depolarisation

11

Which nerve fibres are action potentials transferred to in the taste buds?

Afferent nerves

12

Which cranial nerve supplies the taste buds of the epiglottis and pharynx?

CN X

13

Which chemical causes a salty taste?

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

14

Which ions cause a sour taste?

Hydrogen ions

i.e acidic

15

Which chemical causes a sweet taste?

Glucose

16

What broad group of chemicals cause a bitter taste?

Toxins

17

What is ageusia?

Loss of taste

18

What is hypogeusia?

Reduced taste

19

What is dysgeusia?

Distorted taste

20

What is gustation?

Taste

21

What is olfaction?

Sense of smell

22

What mucosa of the nasal cavity is important in the sense of smell?

Olfactory mucosa

23

Which cells in the olfactory mucosa act as chemoreceptors?

What kind of nerve fibres do they contain?

Olfactory receptor cells

Afferent fibres

24

From which structures of the olfactory neurons do cilia project outwards?

Olfactory rods

25

Where do odorants bind?

Cilia

26

Which cells act as precursors for new olfactory receptor cells?

Basal cells

27

Through which structure do the olfactory nerves pass into the anterior cranial fossa?

Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone

28

Which structures do the olfactory nerves become when they pass through the cribriform plate?

Olfactory bulbs

29

Which lobe contains the olfactory centre of the brain?

Temporal lobe

30

What act enhances the sense of smell by forcing odorants upwards onto the olfactory mucosa?

Sniffing