Flashcards in 5 - The Great Leap Forward Deck (39):
When was the Great Leap Forward launched?
What was the slogan for the GLF?
'more, faster, better, cheaper'
What did Mao launch the GLF in order to achieve?
Overtake Britain in terms of industrial power within 7 years, and the USA soon after
When did China break off relations with the USSR?
In autumn 1957, what target did Mao set for steel production by the 1970s?
40 million tonnes - twice as high as the Central Committee had approved
In the autumn of 1958, how much steel did Mao predict would be produced by 1962 and the early 1970s?
100 million tonnes by1962
700 million tonnes by 1970s
In December 1958, what did Mao set as a target for agricultural production?
430 million tonnes - twice as much as had ever been produced
What did Mao do to collective farms?
Grouped them into people's communes, consisting of around 20,000 people each
What was every member of a commune ages 15-50 also a member of?
The people's militia - the platoons they belonged to were the basic work units
How did Mao move towards abolishing family life?
Children were taken into kindergartens which were commune run, old people cared for in 'happiness homes' and meals provided in mess halls. Family ties called 'bourgeois emotional attachments'
Who's agricultural policies did Mao follow and what were they?
Lysenko. Plant crops deeper and closer together
What did the slogan 'Walking on two legs' order communes to do?
Become industrial centres as well. Backyard furnaces were set up in institutions where no one had experience of smelting
Why did backyard furnaces fail?
Smelted steel/iron was of poor quality
What was the Four Noes campaign?
The eradication of pests: sparrows, rats, flies, mosquitos
What percentage of CPC members were rural based in 1958?
What was Zhou Enlai and Chen Yun's approach to the GLF?
Cautious. Wanted to offer material incentives to persuade them to produce more food
What was Mao, Deng and Liu's approach?
Radical. Involved propaganda to encourage peasants to work harder, and the mass mobilisation of peasant labour through the communes
What happened in February 1958?
Responsibility of overlooking economic planning handed over from state bureaucracy to CPC
Who gained from the handover in economic management in February 1958?
Liu and Deng, at the expense of Chen Yun and Zhou
Why did party cadres take over from technical experts at local level?
Because Mao distrusted experts and saw them as a block on development - hey said it was more important to be 'red' than an expert
What was the first commune in China called and where was it?
Sputnik, Henan province (est 1958)
What was promised in the secret USSR-China agreement in 1957?
Khrushchev would give China access to nuclear technology
How did the USSR influence the GLF?
Introduced to become independent from them
What were Mao's aims for the GLF?
Mass mobilisation, develop China into a great power, catch up with Britain and USA, increase vitality of Communism, consolidate political power
When did Mao embark on his four month tour of China's provinces?
What did Mao do on his tour in early 1958?
Sought to find 'truth from facts'
Why was there a good harvest in 1958?
Largely due to good weather conditions, however still a long way short of the claims made by the government
What was the actual agricultural output in 1958 and what did the government say it was?
Actual - 200 million tonnes, government - 375 million tonnes
What target did Mao set for industrial output for 1959?
430 million tonnes
What happened in the 1959 harvest?
Worst for many years. Declared as 270 million tonnes, was actually 170 million tonnes
What was the agricultural output in 1960?
143 million tonnes
What happened to food items in summer 1959?
Everyday items such as rice, vegetables and cooking oil began to disappear
What percentage of steel was produced in backyard furnaces by September 1958?
In October 1958, what percentage of steel did backyard furnaces account for?
How many people were involved in the backyard furnace campaign at it's peak?
How much acceptable steel was produced in 1958?
9 million tonnes (later revised to 8)
What were the targets for steel production for 1959 and 1962?
20 million tonnes for 1959
60 million tonnes for 1962
When were backyard furnaces abandoned?