50. Skin cancer Flashcards Preview

Muskoloskeletal > 50. Skin cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in 50. Skin cancer Deck (49)
1

skin cancer - types and MC

1. basal cell ( BCC) (MC)
2. Squamous cell carcinoma
3. Melanoma

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MC skin cancer

basal cell carcinoma (BCC)

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basal cell carcinoma ( BCC) of the skin found in ( area body and classic location)

sun exposed area
classic location : upper lip

4

basal cell carcinoma (BCC of skin ) - behavioural

1. locally invasive
2. RARELY metastasizes

5

basal cell carcinoma (BCC of skin ) - macroscopic apperance

pink peraly nobules, commonly with telengectasias, rolled borders, central crusting or ulceration

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basal cell carcinoma (BCC of skin ) -colour

pink

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basal cell carcinoma (BCC of skin ) - borders

rolled borders

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basal cell carcinoma (BCC of skin ) -central

crusting or ulceration

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basal cell carcinoma (BCC of skin ) - present (to the doctor ) as

non healing ucler with infiltrating growth or as a scaling plaque ( superficial BCC)

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basal cell carcinoma (BCC of skin ) - histology

clusters of darkly staining basaloid cells with a palisade arrangement of nuclei at the periphery of the clusters

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second MC skin cancer

Squamous cells carcinoma ( SCC)

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Squamous cells carcinoma ( SCC) of the skin is associated with ( risk factors )

1. excessive exposure to sunlight
2. immunosuppression
3. arsenic exposure

13

Squamous cells carcinoma ( SCC) of the skin commonly appears on

1. face 2. lower lip 3. ears 4. hands

14

Squamous cells carcinoma ( SCC) of the skin - behavioural

- locally invasive
-may spread to lymph nodes
- metastize

15

Squamous cells carcinoma ( SCC) of the skin - histopathology

keratin pearls

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Squamous cells carcinoma ( SCC) of the skin - macroscopic apperance

ulcerative red lessions with frequent scale

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Squamous cells carcinoma ( SCC) of the skin associated with

chronic draining sinuses

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Squamous cells carcinoma ( SCC) of the skin - precursor lession

Actinic keratosis

19

Actinic keratosis apperance

scaly plaque, hyperkeratotic
( small, rough , erythematous or brownush papules or plaques)

20

keratoacanthoma - definition

keratoacanthoma is variant ( well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that develops rapidly (4-6 weeks) and may regress spontaneously over months

21

keratoacanthoma - develops rapidly (how long)

4-6 weeks

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keratoacanthoma - present as a

cap- shaped tumor filled with keratin debris

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melanoma - metastasis?

significant risk

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melanoma - tumor marker

S-100

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melanoma - risk factors

1. sunlight exposure
2. fair- skinned persons are at high risk

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melanoma -.... correlates with risk of metastasis

depth of tumor

27

Melanoma - clinical examination, look for

mnemonic
ABCDE
Assymetry, Border irregularity, Color variation , Diameter > 6 mm, Evolution over time

28

Melanoma - number of subtypes

at least 4 different types

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Melanoma - some subtypes

1. superficial spreading
2. nodular
3. lentigo maligna
4. acral lentiginous

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Melanoma - MC subtype

superficial spreading

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Melanoma is charactyized by 2 growth phases

1. Radial growth
2. Vertical growth

32

Melanoma - radial growth?

Radial growth horizontally along the epidermis and superficial dermis

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Melanoma - Vertical growth

vertical growth into the deep dermis

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Melanoma - vertical vs radial growth according metastasis

radial --> low risk
vertical --> high risk
DEPTH of TUMOR CORRELATES WITH RISK OF METASTASIS

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superficial spreading melanoma - growth / prognosis

radial
good prognosis

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lentigo maligna melanoma - prognosis / growth

good prognosis
radial growth

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nodular melanoma - growth / prognosis

early vertical
poor prognosis

38

acral lentiginous melanoma - special feature

it is not raleted with UV light exposure

39

acral lentiginous melanoma arises at ( area of body)

palms or soles

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acral lentiginous melanoma is often in ... individuals

dark- skinned

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melanoma is often driven by ... (genetics)

activating mutation in BrAF kinase

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melanoma - primary treatment

excission with appropriately wide margins

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metastatic or unresectable melanoma in patients with BRAF V600E mutation may benefit from

vemurafenib

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vemurafenib - mechanism of action

inhibitor of BRAF oncogene + melanoma

45

Patients who may benefit from verafenib

metastatic or unresectable melanoma in patients with BRAF V600E

46

melanoma subtypes with good prognosis

1. lentigo maligna
2. superficial spreading

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melanoma subtypes with poor prognosis

1. acral lentigious
2. nodular

48

Basal vs sqyamous cell carcinoma area of lips

SCC --> lower lio
BCC --> upper lip

49

risk factors for all skin cancers

1. albinisms
2. sunburn

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