5.2 insulin & glucagon Flashcards Preview

A Level Biology > 5.2 insulin & glucagon > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5.2 insulin & glucagon Deck (21):
1

where is insulin produced?

Beta cells in the islets of langerhan

2

when is insulin produced?

when blood glucose levels are too high

3

at what point are blood glucose levels too high?

over 90cm mg-3

4

what do beta cells detect?

rises in blood glucose levels

5

where do beta cells secrete insulin?

into the bloodstream

6

virtually all body cells have receptors for insulin, which body cells don't?

red blood cells
they have no organelles

7

what type of receptor does insulin bind to?

glycoprotein receptor

8

what does insulin cause when it binds to the glycoprotein receptor? what effect does it have?

causes change in tertiary structure of glucose transporter protein channels
allows more glucose in

9

insulin lowers blood glucose by increasing absorption in what?

cells

10

insulin lowers blood glucose by increasing what else in cells?

respiration

11

insulin also lowers blood glucose levels by increasing the rate of which G?

glycogenesis

12

what is glycogenesis?

converting excess glucose into glycogen to be stored in liver

13

insulin lowers blood glucose by increasing conversion of what?

glucose to fat

14

insulin lowers blood glucose by inhibiting the release of what?

glucagon

15

where is glucagon produced?

alpha cells of the islets of langerhan

16

when is glucagon produced?

when blood glucose levels fall

17

where do alpha cells secrete glucagon?

into the blood stream

18

which cells have glucagon receptors?

liver and fat cells

19

glucagon raises blood sugar by breaking down glycogen, what is this?

glycogenolysis

20

glucagon also increases gluconeogenesis, what is this?

producing glucose from non carbohydrate sources e.g. lipids and amino acids, then releasing it into the blood stream

21

what does negative feedback ensure?

changes are reversed and returned back to a set level

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