5.3 Kidneys & Testing Flashcards Preview

A Level Biology > 5.3 Kidneys & Testing > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5.3 Kidneys & Testing Deck (35):
1

what does urine contain?

H20
urea
mineral salts
breakdown products of minerals, hormones and toxins

2

what is present in urine if you have diabetes?

glucose

3

what is present in your urine if you have large amounts of muscle damage?

creatine

4

(pregnancy) what does the site of a developing placenta produce?

hCG - human chorionic gonadotrophin

5

(pregnancy) where can some hCG be found?

blood and urine of the mother

6

(pregnancy) old pregnancy tests injected urine into a toad if the woman was pregnant what happened?

the HCG triggered egg production in the toad

7

(pregnancy) what do modern tests for hCG rely on?

monoclonal antibodies

8

(monoclonal antibodies) what are monoclonal antibodies?

antibodies from a single clone of cells produced to target particular cells/chemicals

9

(monoclonal antibodies) a mouse is injected with what?

hCG to make the appropriate antibody

10

(monoclonal antibodies) what happens to the beta cells that make the antibodies?

removed from spleen of mouse and fused with a myeloma (rapidly diffusing cancer cell)

11

(monoclonal antibodies) what is the newly fused cell known as and what does it do?

hybridoma
reproduces rapidly resulting in a clone of millions of factories producing the desired antibody

12

(monoclonal antibodies) what happens to the antibody?

collected, purified and used in a variety of ways

13

(pregnancy) 1. what part of the test is soaked in urine?

wick

14

(pregnancy)2. the test contains mobile monoclonal antibodies with what attached?

small coloured beads that only bind to hCG

15

(pregnancy) 3. if pregnant hCG binds to the antibodies forming what?

hCG antibody complex

16

(pregnancy) 4. the urine carries along the test structure until it reaches what?

a window

17

(pregnancy) 5. what are arranged in a line or pattern at the window?

immobilised monoclonal antibodies that only bind to hCG antibody complex

18

(pregnancy) 6. what appears if pregnant?

a coloured line/pattern

19

(pregnancy) 7. the urine continues to where?

a second window

20

(pregnancy) 8. what is at the second window?

immobilised monoclonal antibodies which only bind to monoclonal antibodies regardless of whether they are bound to hCG or not

21

(pregnancy) 9. why does a coloured line form at the second window regardless of pregnancy?

to indicate the test is working

22

(anabolic steroids) what are anabolic steroids?

drugs mimicking the action of testosterone stimulating muscle growth

23

(anabolic steroids) are excreted in urine, how can the urine be tested to see if drugs are being used?

using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

24

(anabolic steroids) the urine sample is vapourised with a solvent and passed through where?

tube - the lining of which absorbs the gases

25

(anabolic steroids) the tube is analysed to give what?

a chromatogram which can be used to show presence of drugs

26

(drug testing) what are metabolites?

breakdown products of drugs

27

(drug testing) what happens to drugs or metabolites and what does this mean?

filtered through kidneys and stored in bladder
traces can be found some time after drug use

28

(drug testing) someone suspected of taking drugs can provide a urine sample divided in 2. what happens to the first?

tested using immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies to bind to the drug or metabolite

29

(drug testing) someone suspected of taking drugs can provide a urine sample divided in 2. what happens to the second sample?

If first is positive it may be run through gas chromatography mass spectrometer to confirm drug presence

30

(drug testing) how long does alcohol persist in urine?

6 - 24 hours

31

(drug testing) how long do amphetamines persist in urine?

1 - 3 days

32

(drug testing) how long does cannabis persist in urine?

22 hours - 30 days

33

(drug testing) how long does cocaine persist in urine?

2-5 days

34

(drug testing) why are there two tests?

to confirm initial findings of drugs

35

(pregnancy testing) why might a pregnancy test display a false negative?

faulty test
used so early the blastocyst hasn't joined to the uterus and hCG hasn't yet formed

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