Flashcards in 5.3 Kidneys & Testing Deck (35):
what does urine contain?
breakdown products of minerals, hormones and toxins
what is present in urine if you have diabetes?
what is present in your urine if you have large amounts of muscle damage?
(pregnancy) what does the site of a developing placenta produce?
hCG - human chorionic gonadotrophin
(pregnancy) where can some hCG be found?
blood and urine of the mother
(pregnancy) old pregnancy tests injected urine into a toad if the woman was pregnant what happened?
the HCG triggered egg production in the toad
(pregnancy) what do modern tests for hCG rely on?
(monoclonal antibodies) what are monoclonal antibodies?
antibodies from a single clone of cells produced to target particular cells/chemicals
(monoclonal antibodies) a mouse is injected with what?
hCG to make the appropriate antibody
(monoclonal antibodies) what happens to the beta cells that make the antibodies?
removed from spleen of mouse and fused with a myeloma (rapidly diffusing cancer cell)
(monoclonal antibodies) what is the newly fused cell known as and what does it do?
reproduces rapidly resulting in a clone of millions of factories producing the desired antibody
(monoclonal antibodies) what happens to the antibody?
collected, purified and used in a variety of ways
(pregnancy) 1. what part of the test is soaked in urine?
(pregnancy)2. the test contains mobile monoclonal antibodies with what attached?
small coloured beads that only bind to hCG
(pregnancy) 3. if pregnant hCG binds to the antibodies forming what?
hCG antibody complex
(pregnancy) 4. the urine carries along the test structure until it reaches what?
(pregnancy) 5. what are arranged in a line or pattern at the window?
immobilised monoclonal antibodies that only bind to hCG antibody complex
(pregnancy) 6. what appears if pregnant?
a coloured line/pattern
(pregnancy) 7. the urine continues to where?
a second window
(pregnancy) 8. what is at the second window?
immobilised monoclonal antibodies which only bind to monoclonal antibodies regardless of whether they are bound to hCG or not
(pregnancy) 9. why does a coloured line form at the second window regardless of pregnancy?
to indicate the test is working
(anabolic steroids) what are anabolic steroids?
drugs mimicking the action of testosterone stimulating muscle growth
(anabolic steroids) are excreted in urine, how can the urine be tested to see if drugs are being used?
using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
(anabolic steroids) the urine sample is vapourised with a solvent and passed through where?
tube - the lining of which absorbs the gases
(anabolic steroids) the tube is analysed to give what?
a chromatogram which can be used to show presence of drugs
(drug testing) what are metabolites?
breakdown products of drugs
(drug testing) what happens to drugs or metabolites and what does this mean?
filtered through kidneys and stored in bladder
traces can be found some time after drug use
(drug testing) someone suspected of taking drugs can provide a urine sample divided in 2. what happens to the first?
tested using immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies to bind to the drug or metabolite
(drug testing) someone suspected of taking drugs can provide a urine sample divided in 2. what happens to the second sample?
If first is positive it may be run through gas chromatography mass spectrometer to confirm drug presence
(drug testing) how long does alcohol persist in urine?
6 - 24 hours
(drug testing) how long do amphetamines persist in urine?
1 - 3 days
(drug testing) how long does cannabis persist in urine?
22 hours - 30 days
(drug testing) how long does cocaine persist in urine?
(drug testing) why are there two tests?
to confirm initial findings of drugs