Flashcards in 5_Neuroanatomy and Physiology of the Spinal Cord Deck (100)
The spinal cord is approximately ___ in length in males - _____ in females with a diameter of approximately _____.
1.0 - 1.5 cm
In the adult, this means that the spinal cord ends at the vertebral level of _____.
This disparity in length is due to a differential growth of the spinal cord versus ____________________.
the vertebral column
Along the length of the cord are two observable enlargements. These occur in which two regions?
These occur in the cervical region and in the lumbar/sacral regions.
Their occurrence marks the areas of the spinal cord that contain the neurons concerned with the ______________, respectfully.
Upper and lower extremities (brachial and lumbar plexi)
Rostrally, the cord is continuous with the ______, caudally it tapers into a structure referred to as ___________.
The dorsal and ventral roots of the lower lumbar and sacral segments continue caudally to exit their appropriate ____________. Due to the differential growth of the cord versus the spine, this makes these roots very long. The collection of these long roots is the ______________.
The three layers of meninges:__________________________________ .
dura mater, arachnoid and pia cover the spinal cord.
The dura consists only of a ____________. (the _____________ layer ended at _____________).
(the periosteal layer ended at foramen magnum)
What is the epidural space is an actual space filled with?
The organization of the arachnoid, acting as the limiting component for:
The CSF gets into the subarachnoid space of the spinal canal after leaving the ___________________________.
foramina of Luschka and Magendie
Since the cord ends at vertebral levels______, that leaves a large pocket of subarachnoid space below the caudal tip of the cord, known as the ________.
L1 - L2
In what region are lumbar punctures (spinal taps) are routinely made? (It is safe in this region. )
The pia has two components: 1) a_______ that is adhered directly to the ______, much the same as with the brain. The 2) the ___________.
1) pia intima
2) denticulate ligaments
The denticulate ligaments are extension that _____________________ and _______________ to attach the dura.
extensions that PROTRUDE from the lateral sides of the cord and PIERCE THE ARACHNOID to attach to the dura.
The purpose of the denticulate ligaments is to help _______ and ________ the cord in the vertebral canal.
At the caudal end of conus medullaris, the ligament that extends to anchor the cord is called:
The filum terminale is made up of:
pia, glial elements and maybe some remnants of coccygeal neuronal elements.
AS the filum terminale extends through/and is encased with the dura to attach to the coccyx; it is termed the _________________.
coccygeal (sacral) ligament
The coccygeal (sacral) ligament anchors the:
end of the cord in the spinal canal.
There are ____ pairs of spinal nerves: ___ cervical, ___ thoracic, ___ lumbar, ___ sacral, and ___ coccygeal.
During development of the cord, the segmental arrangement is obscured; with the only evidence remaining being the:
rootlets of the spinal nerves.
The segmental arrangement, however, is still represented to an extent as evidenced by:
dermatomal maps and the multisegmental innervation of muscles
Why is this organization clinically important in discerning the extent and/or location of a deficit? by documenting the loss of certain sensations or changes in motor activity, following damage to the central nervous system.
By documenting the loss of certain sensations or changes in motor activity (following damage to the central nervous system).
The spinal cord has two main subdivisions: (as does the entire CNS): gray matter and white matter.
1) gray matter
2) white matter
Gray matter of the spinal cord is:
the central “butterfly” shaped area
Gray matter consists of______________ and _________________.
neuron cell bodies and glial cells.
What is white matter that is made up?