6. Cell Structure & function - Introduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6. Cell Structure & function - Introduction Deck (19):
1

3 Cell Theories?

1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and organisation
3. All cells arise only from pre-existing cells

2

Universal similarities between cells:?

1. DNA as the heritable material, RNA as an intermediary or
messenger and proteins as the workers
2. Major cellular organelles - functions and arrangements
within the cell
3. ATP energy source

3

The Central Dogma

DNA- RNA- PROTEIN

4

Prokaryote cell vs eukaryote cell. Both have?
Eukaryotic cells have... where Prokaryote cells lack...

Both have:
Plasma membrane, cytosol,
DNA, RNA, protein and
ribosomes
Eukaryotic
membrane-bound organelles, much larger
Prokaryote lack
membrane-bound nucleus

5

The cytoplasm is everything inside the __________ including
the organelles, but not including the
______

plasma membrane
nucleus

6

The fluid portion of the cytoplasm is the _____- water plus dissolved and
suspended substances (eg. ions, ATP, proteins, lipids)

cytosol

7

Major organelles include:

Nucleus
Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth and rough)
Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes
Mitochondria
Ribosomes

8

what organelles are in the
endomembrane
system?
(along with plasma
membrane, they work
together to package, label
and ship molecules)

Nucleus
Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth and rough)
Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes

9

definition of Plasma membrane

The plasma membrane is a selectively permeable barrier
controlling the passage of substances in and out of the cell

10

structure of Plasma membrane

double layer of phospholipids with
embedded proteins
Physical barrier separating the inside
and outside of the cell

11

What is a phospholipid?

• hydrophilic polar heads (phosphate)
• hydrophobic lipid tails (fatty acids)
• arranged as a double layer around cytoplasm, tail to tail

12

3 Plasma Membrane proteins?

Integral membrane proteins
Transmembrane proteins
Peripheral membrane proteins

13

_________ ________ _______
are inserted (part or fully) into
the membrane

Integral membrane proteins

14

_________ ________integral
membrane proteins that span the
entire membrane, contact
extracellular and cytoplasmic areas

Transmembrane proteins:

15

associated with the membrane,
but not actually embedded in it

Peripheral membrane proteins:

16

(6 examples )What do the plasma membrane proteins do?

Transport ((channels)
Enzymatic activity ( chemical reaction)
signal transduction
cell cell recognition(molecular signatures)
intercellular joining (gap
junctions )
attachment to cytoskeleton & ECM

17

The Fluid Mosaic model :

the membrane is mosaic of protein molecules
bobbing in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids

18

Nucleus structure

Enclosed by double
lipid bilayer called
nuclear envelope,
continuous with
rough ER
Entry and exit through nuclear pores
Nucleolus, rRNA production, assembly of small and large subunits of ribosomes

19

Nucleus funcions?

• to house/protect DNA in eukaryotic cells
• rRNA and ribosome production
• pores regulate movement of substances (eg protein and mRNA) in and out
• Molecule segregation to allow temporal and spatial control of cell function