6- Detecting And Responding To Invaders ✅ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6- Detecting And Responding To Invaders ✅ Deck (81):
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Adaptive immunity

A type of immunity that 'learns' about what is being dealt with and how to over come it

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Antibiotics

A substance that kills or inhibits the growth of other microorganisms

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Antibodies

A type of plasma protein (produced by B lymphocytes) in response to particular antigens. They are the basis or humoral immunity

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Antigen

A foreign substance that stimulates lymphocytes to being the specific immune response, it can be binded to by a specific antibody

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Antigen presenting cell (APC)

Lymphocytes and macrophages that take in a pathogen break down its components and present the antibodies on the MHC marker II

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Antiseptic

A substance that kills of inhibits or inhibits the growth of microorganisms on external surfaces of living things

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Autoimmune disease

An inherited defect in the immune system by which certain body cells are not recognised as self and stimulate an immune response

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Basophils

A granulocyte or granular leukocyte produced by stem the bone marrow of animal and secretes histamine.

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B lymphocyte

Cells that are produced from stem cells, many in the bone marrow, and mature in the bone marrow. They are involved in the humoral immune response

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Chemotherapy

The use of chemicals to treat disease by destroying cells, particularly cancer cells

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Colonial selection theory

The process where an antigen 'selects' which of the millions of different B-Lymphocytes clones will become active (that is to secrete antibodies)

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Complement proteins

The 20 different plasma proteins that are involved in immune defence mechanisms, such as by tagging microorganisms for phagocytosis, lysis or encasing in mucous thus immobilising

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Cytotoxic T lymphocyte

A T Lymphocyte that contains lethal chemicals that destroy foreign, infected and altered cells

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Cytotoxins

Toxic substances produced by cells

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Eosinaphil

A granulated leucocyte that secretes powerful enzyme that break down cell walls of pathogens, they are toxic to parasites in which they lyse the parasites tissues

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Epitope

A small part of a larger molecule that binds to a receptor site

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Erythrocyte

Red blood cell

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Fever

A mechanism in which phagocytes secrete a messenger that makes that hypothalamus change the body temp to eliminate a pathogen

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Histamines

Chemicals involved in a local inflammatory response released by basophils and mast cells

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Hybridoma

A fusion of tutor cells and B cells that combine properties of both

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Immunoglobulins

A group of protein antibodies

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Immunosuppressant drugs

Drugs that suppress or inhibit the activities of plasma cells and phagocytic cells

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Inflammation

First response by the immune system to the envision of pathogens, swelling, redness and pain occur as a result of an increase in blood supply and phagocytes

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Interferon

Natural proteins that are produced by the cells of the immune system of most animals in response to challenges by foreign agents, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and tumour cells, interferons belong to the large class of glycoproteins know as cytokines

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Interleukins

A group of small protein molecules(cytokines), produced by white blood cells, that assist communication between leucocytes

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Leucocytes

A general term for describing white blood cells

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Lymph

A colourless fluid that originates from the intercellular fluid (tissue fluid)

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Lymphatic system

Part of the immune system a system of organs (thymus, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, vessels) and lymph fluid that is involved in transporting lymphocytes and in removing foreign matters.

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Lysis

Bursting of a cell

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Macrophage

A large cell that is part of the innate immune system and found in the body tissues; macrophages can migrate for the blood vessels to infected tissues

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Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

A cluster of genes that allows T-lymphocytes and natural killers to discriminate deaf from non-self

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Mast cells

Leucocytes that store a variety of substances that reduce inflammation (inflammatory mediators)

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Memory cells

Lymphocytes that are stored in the lymph nodes long after infection and recognise a pathogen that it has already been exposed to.

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MHC restriction

T-cell receptors are restricted to binding to particular antigens only when associated with the distinctive MHC marker

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Monoclonal antibodies

A group of identical antibodies, each group produced by one kind of immune cell

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Monocytes

Leucocytes that circulate the blood; they grow in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream; they respond to chemical mediators of inflammation and squeeze through that walls of capillaries into the tissues where they become called macrophages

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Natural Killer cells

Granulated lymphocytes that secrete chemicals that lyse cancer cells and cell infected with a pathogen; they attach to the MHC marker to determine if it is self or not, if not, death to that thing

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Necrosis

Unprogrammed cell death

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Neutrophil

Granulated and phagocytic leucocytes found in the blood and tissues

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Non-adaptive

Not able to change to a response

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Non-specific response

A response to a pathogen regardless of its type

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Opportunistic infections

A phenomena where after an infection, when the immune system is weak, another pathogen attacks the body in its weakened state

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Plasma cells

Cells that manufacturers and secretes antibodies rapidly in response to detection of antigen in the bloodstream

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Resolvins

Compounds that are made by the human body that reduce cellular inflammation; they inhibit the production and transportation of inflammatory cells and chemicals to the sites of inflammation

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Retrovirus

An group of RNA viruses that insert a DNA copy of their genome into the host cell in order to replicate

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Specific response

A response to a specific antigen

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T-cell receptor

Specialised receptor sites on T cells that bind to fragments of antigens

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T-helper Cells

T cells that help (activate) other cells of the immune system

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Thymus gland

Two pinkish grey lobes involved in the development of mature T cells

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T lymphocytes

A leucocyte involved in the specific response they are involved in the cell mediated response

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T-suppressor cell

A T lymphocytes that inhibits that activity of phagocytes

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Tumour

An abnormal growth of tissue, owing to unrestricted cell division; may be malignant or benign

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Vaccine

An antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease

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Innate immunity

refers to nonspecific defense mechanisms that come into play immediately or within hours of an antigen's appearance in the body. These mechanisms include physical barriers such as skin, chemicals in the blood, and immune system cells that attack foreign cells in the body.

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MHC class I markers

On all cells apart from erythrocytes

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MHC class II markers

On antigen presenting cells
B and T lymphocytes and macrophages

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Cytokines

A general term to refer to a group of hormone-like substances produced by cells that effect the behaviour of other cells

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Edema

a condition characterized by an excess of watery fluid collecting in the cavities or tissues of the body.

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Phagocytes

Any cell that undergoes phagocytosis

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Platelet (thrombocyte)

A small fragment of membrane bound cytoplasm that stops bleeding by haemostasis and releasing chemicals that stimulate coagulation

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Agglutination

The process of clumping or sticking together

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Antigen-antibody complex

A substance that is the product of the reaction between an antigen and antibody or immunoglobulin

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Autoantibodies

Antibodies that target ones own cells

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Cell mediated response

The process in humans by which foreign cells or the owns body. Elk safe actively destroyed by T cells

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Dendritic cell

Cells with membranous extensions that attract antigens and present them to T-helper cells

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Humoral response

Immunity mediated by antibodies dissolved in the bloodstream

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Memory Cell

A differentiated B or T cell that is formed as an immune response to an invading antigen

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Active induced immunity

Immunity that is done by the body by facilitation.
Vaccine

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Active natural immunity

Immunity that is done by the body that is done by regular process.
Infection

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Allergy

An abnormal response to a serum, pollen, dust mite, fur, or infection by toxin

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Antitoxin

An antibody that counteracts a toxin

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Antivenin

An antiserum containing antibodies against special poisons. AKA anti venom

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Anti-viral drug

A drug that impacts the effectively of viruses

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Attenuated

Weakened or dead cells

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IgE antibodies

A class of humoral immunoglobulins found in the lungs, mucous membranes and the skin. They provide primary defence against antigens from the environment

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Passive induced immunity

Immunity that isnt done by the body and is facilitated.
Anti-venin

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Passive natural immunity

Immunity that isnt done by the body and is done as a regular occurrence.
Antibody gain through mother as a phetus

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Toxoid

A toxin that had been killed or weakened by formalin that when used for vaccination purposes, can produce an immune response.

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Immunity

The ability of an organism to resist an infection or toxin by action of leucocyte psychology or antibodies

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Disinfectants

destroy microorganisms and their spores but are too strong to be used directly on the skin.

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Disinfectants

destroy microorganisms and their spores but are too strong to be used directly on the skin.