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Flashcards in 7-1 Deck (32):
1

what is the name of the child institute

Hassenfeld institute

2

2 sources of lead in environ

paint; gasoline

3

two phyio outcomes of lead poisoning (blood and intelligence)

1) mild anemia 2) low levels = decreases IQ

4

what is the level of lead that is a CONCERN (anything above what #)

anything above 5

5

what explains the lead disparities (the two that he studied)

1) income 2) old housing

6

describe the categories used to determine who should get helped

1) lead poisoning burden 2) old housing 3) poverty 4) young children

7

in lymphocyte recirculation, lymphocytes continually migrate from "" to ""

one peripheral lymphoid tissue to another

8

read: lymphocyte recirculation provides surveillance and defense

-

9

in the BONE MARROW, lymphoid stem cells become "" and "" and then B (steps of becoming B)

1 pro B
2 pre B

10

list out the three secondary lymphoid organs

1 lymph node
2 spleen
3 MALT

11

name the signals that APCs have to give so that naive T cells are activated

1 engagement of TCR by foreign-peptide : self-MHC complex
2 co stimulatory signal
3 cytokine

12

the first signal alone does what

this state of unresponsiveness is called

turns the T cell OFF

anergy/tolerance

13

mature dendritic cells express high levels of what two things

MHC class 2
B7 co-stimulator

14

immunological synapse def

point of contact bt APC and TCR

15

which T cells DO NOT need co stimulation to be active

effector T cells

16

perforins puncture cell membrane and what enzymes enter the holes

then what do they do (enzyme functions)

granulysin and granzyme
-sin: induces apoptosis
-zyme: protease that kills

17

death receptor is called

Fas

18

cross presentation allows dendritic cells to present peptides from extracellular antigens on class # MHC

1

19

naive cells circulate where
effector T cells recirculate where

-naive: in secondary lymphoid
-effector: anywhere

20

Which C molecule acts as an opsonin indicator?

C3b

21

"ALT

what is the umbrella term

what are the two subsets of MALT

MALT (mucosa)

BALT (bronchus)
GALT (gut)

22

what's the clinical significance of linked recognition
just read for now

-let's say that B cell binds polysaccharide epitope of a bacteria (this PS is linked on its other end to microbe remnants)
-this antigen is processed and presented to T cells
-The activated B cell produces Ab against the polysaccharide antigens

23

where does class switching occur

in germinal centers

24

somatic hypermutation alters what

where does it occur

what is the SELECTION of Ab with higher affinity to antigen CALLED

alters antigen binding affinity

in germinal center

called affinity maturation

25

somatic hypermutation is introduced by enzyme called

AID (cytidine deaminase)

26

purpose of follicular dendritic cell

FDC display antigen to B cells

27

B cells during affinity maturation are tested for what two things

-ability to present antigen to helper T cells
-ability to bind to antigen displayed on FDC (follicular dendritic cells)

28

do B cells migrate to germinal center (before/after) B cell activation

after

29

secondary exposure to antigen means memory cells respond - this response is
(slower/faster)
(greater/lesser)

faster
greater

30

(immature/mature) B cells express IgM and IgD on their surface

MATURE

31

which rearrangement comes first (heavy or light) of the B cell

heavy comes first

32

define stenosis

narrowing of aorta at aortic valve