7 - Aims, Origin And Course Of Cultural Revolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7 - Aims, Origin And Course Of Cultural Revolution Deck (97):
0

When was the Cultural Revolution launched?

5am, 18 August 1966, Tiananmen Square

1

How many Red Guards greeted Mao when he launched the CR?

1million

2

What did Biao call Mao?

"great leader, great teacher, great helmsman, great commander"

3

What were Mao's aims for the Cultural Revolution?

Remould China, power struggle within the CPC, rectification campaign

4

What was the play written by Wu Han called?

Hai Rui Dismissed from Office

5

What did Mao say the Cultural Revolution would be?

"A great revolution that touches people to their very souls"

6

Why and when was Wu Han's play criticised?

November 1965, similar to situation with Peng Dehuai

7

Who wrote the article criticising Wu Han?

Yao Wenyuan

8

How did criticising the play also criticise the party?

Wu Han's boss, Peng Zhen, the mayor of Beijing, allied with Liu and Deng

9

What did the party do to deal with the situation?

Tried to diffuse it, made CRG with Peng Zhen as its head

10

What did the Shanghai Radicals day in a statement in February 1966?

China is "under the dictatorship of a sinister anti-party anti-socialist line, opposed to Mao Thought"

11

Who did Lin Biao appoint to coordinate PLA cultural policies in order to emphasise his support for Mao?

Jiang Qing

12

What were the four olds?

Culture, customs, habits, ideas

13

What replaced traditional opera?

'Revolutionary operas'

14

What was Western-style clothing denounced as?

Bourgeois and decadent

15

How old was Mao in 1966?

73

16

Who was promoted to second in the CPC after the fall of Peng Dehuai?

Liu Shaoqi

17

What did Mao think of Liu and his allies by 1965?

That he and his allies couldn't be trusted with defending and continuing the revolution

18

Why did Mao say Liu and Deng were 'capitalist roadsters'?

Because they did nothing to prevent Wu Han's play being performed

19

Why did Deng and Zhou stop supporting Peng Zheng?

Because it wouldn't be threatened their careers

20

When did Mao get the Politburo to remove Peng Zhen from office?

March 1966

21

When did Mao take control of the CRG?

May 1966

22

How did Mao reform the CRG?

Made his allies occupy it's key positions

23

When and where was the first large character poster hung up?

May 1966, Beijing University

24

Who orchestrated the hanging of the wall poster in Beijing University?

Mao's ally Kang Sheng, who's wife was close with the professor

25

What was happening in universities during summer 1966?

Students began to attack teachers and administrators

26

How did Deng try to solve the situation on university campuses?

Sent in work teams to direct criticisms at specific individuals and away from the party

27

When did Mao swim in the Yangzi River?

July 1966

28

When did Mao return to Beijing?

July 1966 - first time since November 1965

29

What did Mao accuse Liu of?

Exercising a dictatorship in Beijing and resisting the Cultural Revolution

30

What happened after Mao criticised Liu?

Central Committee approved his demotion to eighth, with Lin Biao promoted to second

31

What happened at the Party conference in October 1966?

Liu and Deng forced to self criticise

32

When did Liu die?

1969 (in prison)

33

Who else, other than Liu and Deng, was purged in autumn 1966?

Wang Renzhong, Tao Zhu, Marshal He Long, Zhu De

34

What did Mao say university officials were becoming?

'scholar-tyrants'

35

What did Mao say he wanted the Cultural revolution to do?

'Create great great disorder across the land leading to great order'

36

When did Mao issue his 'Bombard the Headquarters' campaign?

August 1966

37

Who did the Red Guard target after August 1966?

Party cadres at national, provincial and local level

38

When did the CPC adopt the Cultural Revolution as an official party policy?

8th August 1966 at Central Committee meeting

39

What document did the CPC issue regarding the Cultural Revolution?

'Sixteen Points on the Cultural Revolution'

40

Who were Red Guard targets?

Intellectuals, teachers, non-communists and the 'five black categories'

41

What was set up to fix Western influence?

'Correction stations'

42

Who were Red Guards directed to attack in 1966?

Party officials

43

What did CPC officials do in order to save themselves from the Cultural Revolution?

Some offered up their subordinates as victims, others encouraged the formation of Red Guard units that were more under the control of Party bureaucracy

44

Who were the most revolutionary Red Guards?

Youth from bourgeois, non-party backgrounds

45

What happened at the 1966 Central Committee Work Conference?

Mao, Biao and the CRG stepped up their campaign against Liu and Deng

46

What happened to 20 members of the Central Committee fo the Beijing District Communist Party?

Forced to appear at struggle meetings, wearing dunce's hats and being subject to physical and verbal abuse

47

When was the WGRH set up?

November 1966

48

What were members of mass organisations known as?

'proletariat revolutionaries'

49

When and where did the 'January Storm' start?

30th December 1966, street battles outside Party offices in Shanghai

50

When did the revolutionary rebels seize the main newspapers in Shanghai?

3rd January 1967

51

Who did Mao send in order to bring down the Shanghai Party Committee and establish a new authority?

Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan

52

When did the WGRH announce the overthrow of the Shanghai Party Committee?

5th January 1967

53

Where else did rebels seize power in January 1967?

Seven other provinces, including Beijing

54

Who established the Shanghai People's Commune?

Zhang Chunqiao

55

What did Mao say in responce to the democratic People's Commune?

'There must be a party somehow. There must be a nucleus, no matter what we call it' - refused to back the Commune and told rebel groups not to follow their example

56

When was the Shanghai People's Commune abandoned?

23 January 1967

57

What replaced the People's Commune in Shanghai?

The Shanghai Revolutionary Committee

58

What was the Shanghai Revolutionary Committee made up of?

'Three in one combination' - revolutionary rebels, PLA representatives and Party officials

59

What did military commanders and the CRG disagree on about the PLA?

Whether or not it should be criticised

60

What did Mao say about the PLA being criticised?

Approved a directive to stop them being criticised, but didn't condemn radical military cadets when they staged struggle meetings against their commanders

61

What happened in the February Crackdown?

Commanders in Sichuan and Wuhan used armed force to suppress radical groups and their leaders

62

What was the February adverse current?

A backlash against the Cultural Revolution by leading Politburo members

63

When did Mao criticise Chen Boda and Jiang Qing?

February 1967

64

What was pointed out to Mao in the February Adverse Current?

That the Red Guards had been overstepping the boundaries laid down by the 16 points

65

What did the February Adverse Current mean for Red Guards?

Imposed limits on their use of force, ordered to stop travelling and return to hometowns, directed them to withdraw from govenment and party departments

66

What did Mao see the February Adverse Current as and what happened to the Politburo as a result?

A threat to his position. They virtually ceased to exist, their powers now exercised by the CRG

67

What happened to PLA officers that tried to crack down on Red Guards?

Denounced as ultra-rightists and court martialled

68

What happened to Liu and Deng as a result of the Adverse Current?

Placed under house arrest - even though they were isolated and had no political influence

69

What happened in Wuhan in July 1967?

600 people died when the Million Heroes clashed with the WRGH

70

What was the May 16 Group?

Ultra left group with about 40 members, made attacks on Zhou as the 'backstage boss' of the Adverse Current. By August, the group no longer existed, but Mao still blamed it

71

What did Mao call the May 16 group?

A 'counter-revolutionary clique'

72

What did Mao say on 11th August 1967?

That the policy of 'dragging out capitalist roadsters in the army' was 'unstrategic'

73

When did Mao forbid the seizure of weapons by the Red Guard?

September 1967

74

What did Mao order Red Guards and workers' factions to form?

'Grand alliances'

75

What did Mao call for the quick set up of?

Revolutionary committees

76

Between August 1967 and July 1968, revolutionary committees were set up in how many provinces?

18

77

How many people fell under the suspicion of the 1967 purge?

10 million, 3 million detained. 2,000 officials purged in the foreign ministry alone

78

When was the 'cleansing of class ranks' and how many people did it effect?

Spring 1968, 1.8 million arrested, tens of thousands beated or committed suicide - most others put in labour camps

79

When did Mao try to restore order in Shaanxi and Guangxi and what did he do?

Summer of 1968, sent PLA to separate factions that were fighting - Military Control Commissions set up

80

What sometimes happened to 'traitors' in Guangxi?

Killed and livers eaten by assailants

81

What happened at Quinghua in Beijing?

Final suppression of Red Guard. 30,000 workers and PLA troops sent to disarm Red Guards - 10 people killed

82

How many young people were sent to the countryside between 1968-70 during rustication?

5 million

83

Who was sent to May 7th Cadre Schools?

Party cadres and intellectuals

84

Where did cleansing of class ranks occur?

May 7th Cadre Schools

85

Who made up revolutionary committees at provincial level?

PLA officers made up half, Red Guard one third, veteral party cadres just 20%

86

What what percentage of local level revolutionary committee members were drawn from the PLA?

98%

87

When was the 29th and final provincial revolutionary committee set up?

September 1968

88

What did Mao say about China in September 1968?

'The entire country is red'

89

Who made up the Central Committee meeting of October 1968?

Survivors and those who had gained from the Cultural Revolution

90

What percentage of the Central Committee had been pruged between 1966-68?

70%

91

How many members with full voting rights were present at the Central Committee meeting in October 1968?

40

92

What did Mao do to the committee to fill it up?

Added 10 new members and packed the meeting with 80 of his supporters

93

What did the Central Committee say the Cultural Revolution was?

A 'great and decisive victory'

94

What happened to Liu Shaoqi at the hands of the Central Committee?

Became a scapegoat and finally expelled from both the party and government

95

When was the full Party congress?

April 1969

96

What happened to Liu Shaoqi after he was expelled from the party?

Developed pneumonia for a second time in his unheated cell in Kaifeng - died on 12 November 1969