Flashcards in 7 - Aims, Origin And Course Of Cultural Revolution Deck (97):
When was the Cultural Revolution launched?
5am, 18 August 1966, Tiananmen Square
How many Red Guards greeted Mao when he launched the CR?
What did Biao call Mao?
"great leader, great teacher, great helmsman, great commander"
What were Mao's aims for the Cultural Revolution?
Remould China, power struggle within the CPC, rectification campaign
What was the play written by Wu Han called?
Hai Rui Dismissed from Office
What did Mao say the Cultural Revolution would be?
"A great revolution that touches people to their very souls"
Why and when was Wu Han's play criticised?
November 1965, similar to situation with Peng Dehuai
Who wrote the article criticising Wu Han?
How did criticising the play also criticise the party?
Wu Han's boss, Peng Zhen, the mayor of Beijing, allied with Liu and Deng
What did the party do to deal with the situation?
Tried to diffuse it, made CRG with Peng Zhen as its head
What did the Shanghai Radicals day in a statement in February 1966?
China is "under the dictatorship of a sinister anti-party anti-socialist line, opposed to Mao Thought"
Who did Lin Biao appoint to coordinate PLA cultural policies in order to emphasise his support for Mao?
What were the four olds?
Culture, customs, habits, ideas
What replaced traditional opera?
What was Western-style clothing denounced as?
Bourgeois and decadent
How old was Mao in 1966?
Who was promoted to second in the CPC after the fall of Peng Dehuai?
What did Mao think of Liu and his allies by 1965?
That he and his allies couldn't be trusted with defending and continuing the revolution
Why did Mao say Liu and Deng were 'capitalist roadsters'?
Because they did nothing to prevent Wu Han's play being performed
Why did Deng and Zhou stop supporting Peng Zheng?
Because it wouldn't be threatened their careers
When did Mao get the Politburo to remove Peng Zhen from office?
When did Mao take control of the CRG?
How did Mao reform the CRG?
Made his allies occupy it's key positions
When and where was the first large character poster hung up?
May 1966, Beijing University
Who orchestrated the hanging of the wall poster in Beijing University?
Mao's ally Kang Sheng, who's wife was close with the professor
What was happening in universities during summer 1966?
Students began to attack teachers and administrators
How did Deng try to solve the situation on university campuses?
Sent in work teams to direct criticisms at specific individuals and away from the party
When did Mao swim in the Yangzi River?
When did Mao return to Beijing?
July 1966 - first time since November 1965
What did Mao accuse Liu of?
Exercising a dictatorship in Beijing and resisting the Cultural Revolution
What happened after Mao criticised Liu?
Central Committee approved his demotion to eighth, with Lin Biao promoted to second
What happened at the Party conference in October 1966?
Liu and Deng forced to self criticise
When did Liu die?
1969 (in prison)
Who else, other than Liu and Deng, was purged in autumn 1966?
Wang Renzhong, Tao Zhu, Marshal He Long, Zhu De
What did Mao say university officials were becoming?
What did Mao say he wanted the Cultural revolution to do?
'Create great great disorder across the land leading to great order'
When did Mao issue his 'Bombard the Headquarters' campaign?
Who did the Red Guard target after August 1966?
Party cadres at national, provincial and local level
When did the CPC adopt the Cultural Revolution as an official party policy?
8th August 1966 at Central Committee meeting
What document did the CPC issue regarding the Cultural Revolution?
'Sixteen Points on the Cultural Revolution'
Who were Red Guard targets?
Intellectuals, teachers, non-communists and the 'five black categories'
What was set up to fix Western influence?
Who were Red Guards directed to attack in 1966?
What did CPC officials do in order to save themselves from the Cultural Revolution?
Some offered up their subordinates as victims, others encouraged the formation of Red Guard units that were more under the control of Party bureaucracy
Who were the most revolutionary Red Guards?
Youth from bourgeois, non-party backgrounds
What happened at the 1966 Central Committee Work Conference?
Mao, Biao and the CRG stepped up their campaign against Liu and Deng
What happened to 20 members of the Central Committee fo the Beijing District Communist Party?
Forced to appear at struggle meetings, wearing dunce's hats and being subject to physical and verbal abuse
When was the WGRH set up?
What were members of mass organisations known as?
When and where did the 'January Storm' start?
30th December 1966, street battles outside Party offices in Shanghai
When did the revolutionary rebels seize the main newspapers in Shanghai?
3rd January 1967
Who did Mao send in order to bring down the Shanghai Party Committee and establish a new authority?
Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan
When did the WGRH announce the overthrow of the Shanghai Party Committee?
5th January 1967
Where else did rebels seize power in January 1967?
Seven other provinces, including Beijing
Who established the Shanghai People's Commune?
What did Mao say in responce to the democratic People's Commune?
'There must be a party somehow. There must be a nucleus, no matter what we call it' - refused to back the Commune and told rebel groups not to follow their example
When was the Shanghai People's Commune abandoned?
23 January 1967
What replaced the People's Commune in Shanghai?
The Shanghai Revolutionary Committee
What was the Shanghai Revolutionary Committee made up of?
'Three in one combination' - revolutionary rebels, PLA representatives and Party officials
What did military commanders and the CRG disagree on about the PLA?
Whether or not it should be criticised
What did Mao say about the PLA being criticised?
Approved a directive to stop them being criticised, but didn't condemn radical military cadets when they staged struggle meetings against their commanders
What happened in the February Crackdown?
Commanders in Sichuan and Wuhan used armed force to suppress radical groups and their leaders
What was the February adverse current?
A backlash against the Cultural Revolution by leading Politburo members
When did Mao criticise Chen Boda and Jiang Qing?
What was pointed out to Mao in the February Adverse Current?
That the Red Guards had been overstepping the boundaries laid down by the 16 points
What did the February Adverse Current mean for Red Guards?
Imposed limits on their use of force, ordered to stop travelling and return to hometowns, directed them to withdraw from govenment and party departments
What did Mao see the February Adverse Current as and what happened to the Politburo as a result?
A threat to his position. They virtually ceased to exist, their powers now exercised by the CRG
What happened to PLA officers that tried to crack down on Red Guards?
Denounced as ultra-rightists and court martialled
What happened to Liu and Deng as a result of the Adverse Current?
Placed under house arrest - even though they were isolated and had no political influence
What happened in Wuhan in July 1967?
600 people died when the Million Heroes clashed with the WRGH
What was the May 16 Group?
Ultra left group with about 40 members, made attacks on Zhou as the 'backstage boss' of the Adverse Current. By August, the group no longer existed, but Mao still blamed it
What did Mao call the May 16 group?
A 'counter-revolutionary clique'
What did Mao say on 11th August 1967?
That the policy of 'dragging out capitalist roadsters in the army' was 'unstrategic'
When did Mao forbid the seizure of weapons by the Red Guard?
What did Mao order Red Guards and workers' factions to form?
What did Mao call for the quick set up of?
Between August 1967 and July 1968, revolutionary committees were set up in how many provinces?
How many people fell under the suspicion of the 1967 purge?
10 million, 3 million detained. 2,000 officials purged in the foreign ministry alone
When was the 'cleansing of class ranks' and how many people did it effect?
Spring 1968, 1.8 million arrested, tens of thousands beated or committed suicide - most others put in labour camps
When did Mao try to restore order in Shaanxi and Guangxi and what did he do?
Summer of 1968, sent PLA to separate factions that were fighting - Military Control Commissions set up
What sometimes happened to 'traitors' in Guangxi?
Killed and livers eaten by assailants
What happened at Quinghua in Beijing?
Final suppression of Red Guard. 30,000 workers and PLA troops sent to disarm Red Guards - 10 people killed
How many young people were sent to the countryside between 1968-70 during rustication?
Who was sent to May 7th Cadre Schools?
Party cadres and intellectuals
Where did cleansing of class ranks occur?
May 7th Cadre Schools
Who made up revolutionary committees at provincial level?
PLA officers made up half, Red Guard one third, veteral party cadres just 20%
What what percentage of local level revolutionary committee members were drawn from the PLA?
When was the 29th and final provincial revolutionary committee set up?
What did Mao say about China in September 1968?
'The entire country is red'
Who made up the Central Committee meeting of October 1968?
Survivors and those who had gained from the Cultural Revolution
What percentage of the Central Committee had been pruged between 1966-68?
How many members with full voting rights were present at the Central Committee meeting in October 1968?
What did Mao do to the committee to fill it up?
Added 10 new members and packed the meeting with 80 of his supporters
What did the Central Committee say the Cultural Revolution was?
A 'great and decisive victory'
What happened to Liu Shaoqi at the hands of the Central Committee?
Became a scapegoat and finally expelled from both the party and government
When was the full Party congress?