Flashcards in 7&8 - Psychology of Brands Deck (17):
What is a brand?
A brand is a category.
Products are elements of the category
Why do brands matter?
- They are ubiquitous
- They influence our economic decisions
- Influence our perceptions and cognitions (Informational value, categorisation)
Describe the three experiments that demonstrate the powerful nature of experiments
Peanut Butter Study
- 3 jars of peanut butter with varying ranges of quality. Participants always selected branded peanut butter even if had low quality inside.
Chicken Nugget Study
- Liked McDonald's packaging better even though same product inside white bag.
- Children were tested, so they knew brand already
Coke Vs Pepsi Study
- in fMRI, unlabelled bottle; no change in taste. in Labelled bottle preference for Coke and activity in PFC and hippocampus (memory)
What makes us consume a brand?
We are aware of the brand
The brand satisfied our psychological needs
What is brand awareness?
The degree to which you are familiar with a brand
- recognising the brand
- correctly associating it with product/service
What helps cultivate brand awareness?
- Logos (powerful, represent infinite concepts, quickly perceived, but double-edged sword)
- Colours (detected easily, effectiveness depends on context)
- Names (sound symbolism; align sound to brand/product, invoke meaning. Fluency important)
Why are logos, colours and names important?
Provide marketers with multiple routes to increase brand awareness.
Give brands public visibility
Overall, how does a brand satisfy our psychological needs?
Self-definition, reflection and signalling
What symbolic meanings to brands possess?
Define brand personality?
Set of human characteristics associated with a brand
What are the effects of brand personality and describe it as a concept
Creates differentiation between brands.
It is stable over time and is influenced by context
Aaker's 5-factor of the self describes brand personality. What are the factors she found?
The first three are human characteristics.
Change across contexts
Which needs regarding the self can the symbolic quality of brands help to achieve?
Reflecting the self (i buy x because i care about the environment)
Signal the self (i buy x to show others I care)
Define the self (i care about the environment because I bought x)
In terms of brands and the self, what changes from 8 to 12 year olds?
At age 12, children understand that brands can signal something about the self.
8 year olds treat brands as informational perceptual cues.
What is a self-brand connection and how can it be measured?
The extent to which a consumer has incorporated a brand into their self-concept
Explicitly; this brand reflects me, I use this brand to communicate who I am
Implicitly; RT assessing associative strength of brand and "me"
Why might some brands elicit stronger self-brand connections?
Mac users show stronger associations than PC users.
Could be because they're a minority and therefore relate to the in-group more strongly.
Stronger brand connections with;
- associated with the in-group
- congruent personality to us