Flashcards in #7. Environmental Considerations & Common Medical Conditions Deck (41):
"heat loss from a warmer object to a cooler object - indirectly"
manners of heat dissipation: radiation
"warmer body gives off heat to cooler objects - directly"
manners of heat dissipation: conduction
"cooler air blowing over body will cool off the body"
manners of heat dissipation: convection
"perspiration form on surface of skin and evaporates, carrying the heat with it"
manners of heat dissipation: evaporation
for temperatures that are less then 20 degrees Celsius, what are the primary ways to dissipate heat?
conduction and evaporation
for temperatures that are greater then 20 degrees Celsius, what is the primary way to dissipate heat?
Etiology: when an individual abruptly stops exercising and blood pools therefore not being returned to the brain or heart.
S&S: lightheadedness or fainting
What is it?
"temporary loss of consciousness caused by a fall in blood pressure"
Management for heat syncope?
elevate legs, cool down with towels, re-hydrate, and remove from heat
S&S: extreme weakness, profuse sweating, light headedness, impaired ability, headaches, tachycardia, cramping, vomiting or diarrhea, and core temp greater then 39.5 degrees. What is it?
When someone has heat stroke, why do you not want submerge them in water?
A) because they can pass out and drown
B) because if their extremities get to cold to fast then it sends a rush of cold blood to the heart which is a big no no
Etiology: body is unable to dissipate heat and results in a core temp that is greater then 40 degrees
S&S: sudden collapse, LOC, flushed, hot skin, shallow breathing and rapid pulse
What is this?
Which do you call 911 for, heat exhaustion or heat stroke?
Which causes skin to feel cold, clammy and look pale, heat exhaustion or stroke?
Rapid weak pulse is heat ____ while rapid strong pulse is heat _____.
Do you sweat if you have heat stroke?
"preventable disorder involving fluid-electrolyte balance; results in abnormally low plasma sodium concentration, and the low levels disrupt the osmotic balance across the BBB which results in a rapid influx of water into the brain causing swelling and unusual neurological responses"
S&S: confusion, seizure, coma - can lead to death because brain-stem ruptures
Hypothermia - problems arise when heat loss exceeds heat production - this results in impairment of ______ function
Etiology: body's ability to produce heat is impaired and core temp falls to less then 35 degrees
S&S: shivering, numbness, lack of coordination, confused or unusual behavior, slurred speach
What is it?
If someone has hypothermia and starts to complain about being to hot and they start to remove clothes, what does this mean?
they are getting close to death
-shivering occurs @ ____
-shivering stops @ ___-___ degrees
-death is imminent @ ___-___degrees
small drops in body temp
Why is it important not to rub skin that has frost bite?
Because fluid between the cells has crystallized and has ice crystals so if you rub it then ice shards will damage tissue and vessels
At risk temperatures:
Red Flag @ __-__
Amber Flag @ __-__
Green Flag @ __-__
White Flag @ less than __
less than 10
Increased height = reduced barometric pressure resulting in decreased partial pressure of oxygen = less saturation of ___ ___ ____
red blood cells
During altitude sickness, how does the body compensate?
tachycardia and hyperventilation - responses are a result of having fewer red blood cells than necessary to adequately capture available oxygen
What type of altitude illness: chest tightness, persistent cough, frothy sputum, feeling of suffocation during sleep
High Altitude Pulmonary Edema
What type of altitude illness: headache, disorientation, loss of coordination, memory loss, coma, psychotic behavior
High Altitude Cerebral Edema
What type of altitude illness: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, dizziness, fatigue, lightheadedness
Acute Mountain Sickness
What is the #2 cause of death due to weather phenomena?
Diabetes: Type _ is insulin-dependent - typically occurs in individuals under age 35
Diabetes: Type _ is non-insulin dependent - occurs in all ages, becoming increasingly prevalent in younger individuals due to childhood obesity
Vigorous exercise increases peripheral insulin action and enhances ___ tolerance.
Extreme temperatures and unpredictable activity levels may require the administration of rapid-acting ____ for management of diabetes.
Etiology: occurs when the body has too much insulin and too little blood sugar
S&S: tingling in mouth, hands or other parts of body, physical weakness, headaches, abdominal pain, shallow respiration, rapid HR
What is it?
Etiology: loss of sodium, potassium, and ketone bodies through excessive urination, put off an acetone smell (like nail polish)
S&S: labored breathing, fruity smelling breath, nausea, vomiting, thirst, dry mucous membranes, flushed skin, LOC followed by coma
What is it?
"recurrent paroxysmal disorder of cerebral function characterized by periods of altered consciousness, motor activity, sensory phenomena or inappropriate behavior caused by abnormal cerebral neuron discharge"
During an epileptic seizure, call 911 if it lasts for longer than ___ minute(s)
An epileptic seizure lasting 5-15 seconds is called? If it lasts for longer its called?
petit mal seizure
grand mal seizure
Etiology: caused by impact of foot as it strikes the surface; impact destroys the normal erythrocytes within vascular system
S&S: mildly enlarged cells, increase in immature RBCs and negatively affect hemoglobin
What is it?