7-Western Cultures-Rome-Study Guide-Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7-Western Cultures-Rome-Study Guide-Vocab Deck (74):
1

mundus`

meeting point for worlds of the living and dead; marked by stone

2

Necropolis:

cemetery area; contains many tombs

3

catacomb

underground tombs carved in the rock

4

soothsayers

people who predict the future

5

omens

signs that predict the future

6

fasces

bundle of rods/stick bound around an axe symbolzing authority

7

triumph

procession honoring a hero; parade from battle

8

Forum

public square with palace, government buildings, and courts j

9

cuniculus

irrigation; trench cut underground with shafts dug downward

10

voussoirs

wedge-shaped stones used in Etruscan arches

11

pier

pillar-llike bases used in Etruscan arches

12

Romulus

mythical character who established Rome, killed Remus (brother)

13

Palatine Hill

hill where the first settlement of Rome was built

14

Capitoline Hill

center of Roman government

15

Latins

legendary founders of Rome (along with Trojans)

16

Etruscans

people from Etruria, Italy's first civilized people

17

Describe an Etruscan city (architecture)

houses on hilltops surrounded by walls
bridges using arches
laid foundations for Rome's first sewer system

18

Etruscan society (people) were:

Culturally advanced
Relative equality and freedom for women
Women could own property
Monarchy
Very Religious
Farmers

19

What was the Etruscan funeral custom? What did it become?

Etruscan slaves fought to the death at funerals
fights between armed men or man vs. animals
winner was sacrificed
foundation for Rome's gladiatorial games

20

Who was Lucius Tarquinius?

First Etruscan ruler of Rome, dynasty ruled for a century
Who was Tarquin Superbus ?

21

Who was Tarquin Superbus "The Proud"?

Last Etruscan ruler

22

List aspects of Roman culture that came from the Etruscans:

alphabet arch
language tunnels/dams/irrigation system
walled hilltop cities belief in omens
gladiatorial games

23

Consul

(2) headed the Roman Republic; military leaders

24

Senate

powerful governing body behind the consuls; proposed laws

25

Lictors

Senators' bodyguards

26

Assemblies

protected rights of the plebeians; all Romans belonged

27

Tribune

protected plebeian rights

28

Patricians

member of Rome's upper class; Fathers of the State; Wealthiest

29

Plebeians

members of Rome's lower class; many; Conflict of the Orders

30

Twelve Tables

Foundation for all future Roman law; placed in Forum

31

Legionaries

members of a legion- group of 4,200 to 5,000 soldiers:
able to leave main body of group
each soldier was independent
bult camp (castrum) before going to sleep

32

Who fought in the Punic Wars?

Rome (Italy) v. Carthage (North Africa)

33

What started the Punic wars

Carthage rose to power by taking over Phoenician colonies.
Mamertines took control of Messina on Sicily.
Mamertines turned to Carthage for help controlling Messina.
Then they appealed to Rome for help
This help by the Carthaginians broke a treaty with Rome
Rome declares war.

34

Who won each war?

Rome won all of them

35

Hannibal:

general of Carthage; uses elephants to cross the Alps; brilliant leader

36

Scipio

general of Rome; defeats Hannibal at battle of Zama

37

What were Carthage's greatest mistakes?

Not reinforcing Hannibal when he was at the gates of Rome
Requesting that Hannibal return to Carthage to defend it

38

What were the four causes that led to the decline of the Republic?

Farmers lost economic and political independence (latifundia replaced small farm)
Merchants and artisans became poorer as rich Romans bought goods elsewhere
The gap between the rich and poor widened
The government became unstable

39

What ended the Republic?

After many reformers and generals tried to help the Republic's social, economic, and political problems, Julius Caesar rose to power and was assassinated.

40

Who were the first triumvirate?

Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus

41

Julius Caesar was supported by who?

the people of Rome

42

Why did the people support Julius Caesar?

his reforms

43

Julius Caesar was murdered on the...

Ides of March, 44 BCE

44

Who assassinated Caesar?

the Senate

45

Who was in the second triumvirate?

Octavian, Lepidus, Mark Antony

46

Who takes sole control from the second triumvirate?

Octavian

47

Who gained control after Julius Caesar?

Octavian, after defeating the other members of the second triumvirate.

48

How did he get control?

restored Republic; volunteered to resign

49

Who was the first Roman Emperor?

Octavian/ took name Augustus, which means Revered One

50

Augustus strengthened his authority in two ways by...

Having every soldier swear allegiance to him
Choosing talented people (not just upper class) to take care of Rome's daily business

51

Pax Romana

peace Augustus brought to the Roman empire (lasted 200 years)

52

What were the three major causes for the decline of the empire?

No method for inheriting the throne
High taxes and inflation
Germanic peoples invade Roman frontiers

53

What invention gave the Germans victory over the Romans?

the iron stirrup made the cavalry stronger than infantry

54

What is the difference between a Republic and an Empire?

Republic- Democracy; representative; two consuls; people make final decision
Empire- Emperor makes final decision
Both- have Senate

55

Give one reason for the decline of the Roman Empire.

Roman soldiers left the Rhine-Danube border to fight civil-wars in Italy.
Over time, Germanic tribes moved from Northern and central Europe to raid and conquer Roman lands such as Greece and Gaul.
As the Germanic tribes took over areas of land, trade routes closed up, trade and business began to disappear, and cities declined.
Eventually, in AD 476 Germanic general Odovacar over threw the last Roman empire.

56

Why did Roman students stop at bars before attending school each day?

breakfast bars- they bought bread, beans, or nuts to eat en route to school.

57

Did Romans have to go to school?

No, it wasn't required by laws.

58

stylus

pointy pen; used to write on clay boards

59

scrolls

long papers with notes, students memorized it

60

What did Roman parents place around their newborn's neck?

a bulla, or good luck charm. It was bestowed on a child's ninth day of life (if they lived that long).

61

What do cooked mice, roasted parrots, and slated jellyfish have in common?

they were all Roman appetizers

62

Why did Roman politicians and lawyers often eat walnuts?

considered "smart food" because they look like little human brains

63

votives

left at temples to help cure people (could be candles)

64

Why was Rome at such a great risk of fire?

poorly constructed wooden shacks were abundant; people cooked on portable grills that caught fire easily.

65

insula

island/apartment bulding

66

Via Appia/Appian Way

used paving stones that settled instead of cracking.

67

Why would wealthy Roman men wear dirty old togas on purpose?

when they were traveling on dark streets at night, it made them lesser targets for mugging.

68

lictors

body guards

69

What was the white bull used in for a triumph

sacrafice

70

Where was the best place to find a boyfriend/girlfriend in ancient Rome?

Circus Maximus; men and women could sit together there

71

strigil

used to scrape off oil, sweat, and dirt

72

caldarium

hottest room, cleansing sweat

73

tepidarium

warm room with small bathing pool

74

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