Flashcards in 7-Western Cultures-Rome-Study Guide-Vocab Deck (74):
meeting point for worlds of the living and dead; marked by stone
cemetery area; contains many tombs
underground tombs carved in the rock
people who predict the future
signs that predict the future
bundle of rods/stick bound around an axe symbolzing authority
procession honoring a hero; parade from battle
public square with palace, government buildings, and courts j
irrigation; trench cut underground with shafts dug downward
wedge-shaped stones used in Etruscan arches
pillar-llike bases used in Etruscan arches
mythical character who established Rome, killed Remus (brother)
hill where the first settlement of Rome was built
center of Roman government
legendary founders of Rome (along with Trojans)
people from Etruria, Italy's first civilized people
Describe an Etruscan city (architecture)
houses on hilltops surrounded by walls
bridges using arches
laid foundations for Rome's first sewer system
Etruscan society (people) were:
Relative equality and freedom for women
Women could own property
What was the Etruscan funeral custom? What did it become?
Etruscan slaves fought to the death at funerals
fights between armed men or man vs. animals
winner was sacrificed
foundation for Rome's gladiatorial games
Who was Lucius Tarquinius?
First Etruscan ruler of Rome, dynasty ruled for a century
Who was Tarquin Superbus ?
Who was Tarquin Superbus "The Proud"?
Last Etruscan ruler
List aspects of Roman culture that came from the Etruscans:
language tunnels/dams/irrigation system
walled hilltop cities belief in omens
(2) headed the Roman Republic; military leaders
powerful governing body behind the consuls; proposed laws
protected rights of the plebeians; all Romans belonged
protected plebeian rights
member of Rome's upper class; Fathers of the State; Wealthiest
members of Rome's lower class; many; Conflict of the Orders
Foundation for all future Roman law; placed in Forum
members of a legion- group of 4,200 to 5,000 soldiers:
able to leave main body of group
each soldier was independent
bult camp (castrum) before going to sleep
Who fought in the Punic Wars?
Rome (Italy) v. Carthage (North Africa)
What started the Punic wars
Carthage rose to power by taking over Phoenician colonies.
Mamertines took control of Messina on Sicily.
Mamertines turned to Carthage for help controlling Messina.
Then they appealed to Rome for help
This help by the Carthaginians broke a treaty with Rome
Rome declares war.
Who won each war?
Rome won all of them
general of Carthage; uses elephants to cross the Alps; brilliant leader
general of Rome; defeats Hannibal at battle of Zama
What were Carthage's greatest mistakes?
Not reinforcing Hannibal when he was at the gates of Rome
Requesting that Hannibal return to Carthage to defend it
What were the four causes that led to the decline of the Republic?
Farmers lost economic and political independence (latifundia replaced small farm)
Merchants and artisans became poorer as rich Romans bought goods elsewhere
The gap between the rich and poor widened
The government became unstable
What ended the Republic?
After many reformers and generals tried to help the Republic's social, economic, and political problems, Julius Caesar rose to power and was assassinated.
Who were the first triumvirate?
Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus
Julius Caesar was supported by who?
the people of Rome
Why did the people support Julius Caesar?
Julius Caesar was murdered on the...
Ides of March, 44 BCE
Who assassinated Caesar?
Who was in the second triumvirate?
Octavian, Lepidus, Mark Antony
Who takes sole control from the second triumvirate?
Who gained control after Julius Caesar?
Octavian, after defeating the other members of the second triumvirate.
How did he get control?
restored Republic; volunteered to resign
Who was the first Roman Emperor?
Octavian/ took name Augustus, which means Revered One
Augustus strengthened his authority in two ways by...
Having every soldier swear allegiance to him
Choosing talented people (not just upper class) to take care of Rome's daily business
peace Augustus brought to the Roman empire (lasted 200 years)
What were the three major causes for the decline of the empire?
No method for inheriting the throne
High taxes and inflation
Germanic peoples invade Roman frontiers
What invention gave the Germans victory over the Romans?
the iron stirrup made the cavalry stronger than infantry
What is the difference between a Republic and an Empire?
Republic- Democracy; representative; two consuls; people make final decision
Empire- Emperor makes final decision
Both- have Senate
Give one reason for the decline of the Roman Empire.
Roman soldiers left the Rhine-Danube border to fight civil-wars in Italy.
Over time, Germanic tribes moved from Northern and central Europe to raid and conquer Roman lands such as Greece and Gaul.
As the Germanic tribes took over areas of land, trade routes closed up, trade and business began to disappear, and cities declined.
Eventually, in AD 476 Germanic general Odovacar over threw the last Roman empire.
Why did Roman students stop at bars before attending school each day?
breakfast bars- they bought bread, beans, or nuts to eat en route to school.
Did Romans have to go to school?
No, it wasn't required by laws.
pointy pen; used to write on clay boards
long papers with notes, students memorized it
What did Roman parents place around their newborn's neck?
a bulla, or good luck charm. It was bestowed on a child's ninth day of life (if they lived that long).
What do cooked mice, roasted parrots, and slated jellyfish have in common?
they were all Roman appetizers
Why did Roman politicians and lawyers often eat walnuts?
considered "smart food" because they look like little human brains
left at temples to help cure people (could be candles)
Why was Rome at such a great risk of fire?
poorly constructed wooden shacks were abundant; people cooked on portable grills that caught fire easily.
Via Appia/Appian Way
used paving stones that settled instead of cracking.
Why would wealthy Roman men wear dirty old togas on purpose?
when they were traveling on dark streets at night, it made them lesser targets for mugging.
What was the white bull used in for a triumph
Where was the best place to find a boyfriend/girlfriend in ancient Rome?
Circus Maximus; men and women could sit together there
used to scrape off oil, sweat, and dirt
hottest room, cleansing sweat
warm room with small bathing pool