7-WesternCultures-Greece-Study Guide Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7-WesternCultures-Greece-Study Guide Part 1 Deck (70):
1

polis

city-state including the settlement and farmland

2

Dark Age

a period where people forget how to read and write

3

foreigner

a person from another city-state

4

Monarchy

one lawful ruler

5

aristocrats

wealthy men who inherited land; wealthy landowners who provided advice

6

Oligarchy

ruling power is in the hands of a few

7

Tyranny

one unlawful ruler

8

Democracy

all citizens share in the ruling power

9

citizen

free male person of age in that city-state which he was born

10

direct democracy

every citizen can vote on every issue

11

representative democracy

people vote for representatives who decide on the issues

12

Assembly

lawmaking group

13

What forced people in Greece to settle in isolated communities?

mountains

14

What did these communities have in common?

Language

15

How did Greeks identify themselves?

with hometown/polis

16

Why did the Monarch lose power?

Dependent on aristocrats

17

Why did the Oligarch lose power?

Rich got richer poor got poorer

18

Why did the Tyrant lose power?

ruled too harshly, forced out

19

Athenians got the goods they needed for everyday life:

through trade and by buying and selling goods in the agora

20

Spartans got the goods they needed for everyday life:

from conquered peoples and from Helots, slaves, and Perioeci, free/non-citizens, who did all the work (aristocracy managed government and army)

21

Athenian Education

Boys were taught at home by mothers until age 6-8
Boys attended three other schools
Girls were taught to cook, clean, and weave

22

Spartan Education

Boys and girls were trained to fight
Boys were taught to read and write
Skills for survival (stealing was a way of life)

23

Who were the Ten thousand Immortals?

Persian warriors

24

satrapies

provinces led by appointed official

25

Where did Darius build his capital?

Persepolis

26

Where did Darius build his capital?

Persepolis

27

Why did Darius conquer Ionian city-states?

to gain control of trade-routes and wealth

28

What was the Ionian Rvolt?

Ionians and Athenians fighting against the Persians

29

What did the Persians set-up as the form of government?

puppet rulers

30

HOw did the Ionians respond to Persian rules?

They asked Greek mainland for help

31

Who was the only city state to help the Ionians?

Athens

32

How long did the Ionian Revolt Last?

Five years

33

Who won the revolt?

Persia

34

What was Darius's response to Athens's part in the Ionian Revolt?

revenge (Persian War)

35

What marked the beginning of the Persian War?

493 BCE, the end of the Ionian Revolt

36

Where was the first battle of the Persian War?

Marathon

37

Why didn't Sparta send help to Athens immediately?

They were celebrating a religious festival, also only wanted to protect themselves (no sense of unity between city-states of Greece)

38

Why didn't Darius use his cavalry at Marathon?

He wanted to use them to attack Athens

39

Who won at Marathon?

Greeks easily beat the weaker Persian infantry with out the stronger Persian cavalry

40

Who took control of the Persian army after Darius died

Xerxes, his son

41

How did the northern city-states respond to the Persian invasion?

the surrendered quickly

42

What two city-states worked together against the Persians?

Athens and Sparta

43

Who was the Spartan leader/king?

Leonidas

44

How did the Persians get through the pass at Thermopylae?

A Greek betrayed the secret pass

45

What was the result of the Battle of Thermopylae?

All the Spartans and Leonidas were killed

46

Why did the Greeks flee to Salamis?

To avoid capture in a siege

47

What did Xerxes do to Athens?

He destroyed and burned it, in revenge for the burnings of his city(s) in the Ionian revolt

48

Who was the Athenian general at Salamis

Themisticles

49

Why didn't Xerxes want to attack the Greeks by sea?

Xerxes knew his navy was weaker

50

What was the false message sent by the Athenian general at Salamis?

Themistocles had changed sides

51

What happened to the Persian fleet once they entered the channel at Salamis?

They were surrounded

52

Who won the battle of Salamis?

Greeks, under Themistocles

53

Where did the final battle of the persian War take place?

Platea

54

When did the Persian War end?

479 BCE

55

What was the name of the defensive league created after the Persian War?

Delian League (HQ on island of Delos)

56

What was the purpose of this Delian League?

protection

57

Who didn't join the Delian League?

Sparta

58

How did Athens become rich due to the formation of the Delian League?

Athens collected taxes/money to build ships for trade

59

How did the other city-states feel about Athens's wealth?

resentful and had disputes

60

Who was the main leader at the time of the Delian League?

Athens, under Pericles

61

What happened in Athens under Pericles?

Golden Age of Athens

62

What brought about the decline of Athens?

The Peloponnesian War

63

Who was the Peloponnesian War fought between?

Athens and Sparta

64

Why did the Peloponnesian War begin?

Athens attacked a Spartan ally, Sparta declared war on Athens

65

How long did the Peloponnesian War last?

27 years

66

Who won the Peloponnesian war?

Sparta

67

What is a mercenary?

A hired soldier

68

Why did some Greeks become mercenaries?

to make money

69

What city-state took control of Greece upon the conclusion of this war?

Thebes (who took over from Sparta, who beat Athens)

70

What led to the downfall of Thebes?

Thebes and the other city-states were no longer strong enough to fight off invaders (namely Philip II of Macedon)