7.2 Changing Behavior Through Reinforcement and Punishment: Operant Conditioning Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > 7.2 Changing Behavior Through Reinforcement and Punishment: Operant Conditioning > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7.2 Changing Behavior Through Reinforcement and Punishment: Operant Conditioning Deck (20):
1

operant conditioning

- learning that occurs based on the consequences of behavior

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Edward L. Thorndike

- the first scientist to systematically study operant conditioning

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law of effect

- the principle that responses that create a typically pleasant outcome in a particular situation are more likely to occur again in a similar situation, whereas responses that produce a typically unpleasant outcome are less likely to occur again in the situation

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Skinner box (operant chamber)

- a structure that is big enough to fit a rodent or bird and that contains a bar or key that the organism can press or peck to release food or water. It also contains a device to record the animal’s responses

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reinforcer

- any event that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior

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punisher

- any event that weakens or decreases the likelihood of a behavior

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positive reinforcement

- strengthens a response by presenting something pleasant after the response

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negative reinforcement

- strengthens a response by reducing or removing something unpleasant

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punishment

- any event that weakens or reduces the likelihood of a behavior

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positive punishment

- weakens a response by presenting something unpleasant after the response

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negative punishment

- weakens a response by reducing or removing something pleasant

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continuous reinforcement schedule

- the desired response is reinforced every time it occurs

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partial (or intermittent) reinforcement schedule

- a schedule in which the responses are sometimes reinforced, and sometimes not

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fixed-interval schedule

- reinforcement occurs for the first response made after a specific amount of time has passed

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variable-interval schedule

- the reinforcers appear on an interval schedule, but the timing is varied around the average interval, making the actual appearance of the reinforcer unpredictable

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fixed-ratio schedule

- a behavior is reinforced after a specific number of responses

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variable-ratio schedule

- provides reinforcers after a specific but average number of responses

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shaping

- the process of guiding an organism’s behavior to the desired outcome through the use of successive approximation to a final desired behavior

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primary reinforcer

- stimuli that are naturally preferred or enjoyed by the organism, such as food, water, and relief from pain

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secondary reinforcer

- neutral event that has become associated with a primary reinforcer through classical conditioning

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