7.2 Foetal Growth And Development Flashcards Preview

Yr 2 Sem 1 Repro > 7.2 Foetal Growth And Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7.2 Foetal Growth And Development Deck (58):
1

When is pregnancy calculated from?

The date of last menstrual period

2

What pattern of growth characterises the embryonic period?

Intense activity - organogenetic period
Absolute growth is very small (except placenta)

3

What happens to growth in the foetal period?

Growth and weight gain accelerate

4

During which periods does CRL rapidly increase?

Pre-embryonic
Embryonic
Early foetal

5

When is weight gain at its fastest (of foetus)?

Mid and late foetal periods

6

What sort of growth occurs in the embryo?

Intense morphogenesis and differentiation
Not much weight gain
Significant placental growth

7

What sort of growth happens in the early foetus?

Protein deposition

8

What sort of growth occurs in the late foetus?

Adipose deposition

9

Why is the CRL less useful in the foetal period?

Body proportions change dramatically

10

What are the body proportions at week 9?

Head is approximately half CRL

11

What happens to the body proportions after week 9?

Body length and lower limb growth accelerates

12

What are 3 sources of ante-natal assessment of foetal wellbeing?

Mother -> Foetal movements
Measurements of uterine expansion
Ultrasound scan

13

How is uterine expansion measured?

Symphysis-fundal height

14

What must be taken into consideration when using symphysis-fundal height?

It is not just the foetus that is occupying the space
There is amniotic fluid too

15

When would a first time mother feel foetal movements?

20 weeks

16

What can the USS be used to detect early in pregnancy?

Calculate age
Rule out ectopic
Number of foetuses
Assess foetal growth
Anomalies

17

Why is the USS done at 20 weeks?

Structures are developed
Structures are large enough to see

18

What is the 20 week scan sometimes known as?

Anomaly scan

19

What methods can be used to estimate foetal age?

LMP
Development criteria

20

When is CRL measured?

Between 7 and 13 weeks

21

What is a T1 scan used for?

Date pregnancy
Estimate due date
Check location
Number
Viability

22

Why is CRL not used later in pregnancy?

Less strong correlation between crown and rump

23

What is the biparietal diameter?

The distance between the parietal bones of the foetal skull

24

When in pregnancy is is biparietal diameter used?

T2 and 3

25

What is AC & FL?

Abdominal circumference and femur length

26

What is AC&FL used for?

Anomaly detection

Dating and growth monitoring (when used in combination with BPD)

27

What is an average birth weight?

3500g

28

What does a birth weight of less than 2500g suggest?

Growth restriction

29

What birth weight is classified as macrosomia?

>4500g

30

What could be a cause of macrosomia?

Maternal diabetes

31

What part of the lungs develops in the embryonic period?

Bronchopulmonary tree

32

What occurs to the lungs in the foetal period?

Functional specialisation

33

What is the lung derived from?

Out-pocket of foregut

34

Which lung development stage occurs from weeks 8-16?

Pseudoglandular stage

35

What developmental stage occurs in the lungs at weeks 16-26?

Canalicular stage

36

What developmental stage occurs in the lungs from weeks 26-term?

Terminal sac stage

37

What occurs during the pseudoglandular stage of lung development?

Duct system begins to form within the bronchopulmonary segments
(Bronchioles)

38

What occurs during the canalicular stage?

Formation of respiratory bronchioles

39

What occurs during the terminal sac stage?

Terminal sacs bud from respiratory bronchioles
Differentiation of type 1 and 2 pneumocytes

40

Where does gas exchange occur in a foetus?

At the placenta

41

How do the lungs prepare to work at birth?

Breathing movements to condition the respiratory muscles
Fluid filled for normal lung development

42

When is viability possible?

When the lungs have entered the terminal sac stage
>24 weeks

43

Why does respiratory distress syndrome often affect premature babies?

Insufficient surfactant production

44

What treatment can be given is preterm delivery is unavoidable?

Glucocorticoid treatment of mother to increase surfactant production in foetus

45

What is the definitive foetal HR and when is it achieved?

110-160 bpm
At 15 weeks

46

When doesfoetal kidney function begin?

Week 10

47

What is a major contributor to amniotic fluid?

Foetal urine

48

Why is foetal kidney function not necessary for survival in utero?

Renal function managed by the placenta

49

What may be seen if there is decreased foetal kidney function?

Oligohydramnios

50

What is oligohydramios and what can it be caused by?

Too little AF

Placental insufficiency
Foetal renal impairment

51

What is polyhydramnios and what is it caused by?

Too much AF
Foetal abnormality eg inability to swallow

52

What may lead to a foetus being unable to swallow?

Tracheoesphageal septum in wrong place
CNS defect meaning foetus is unable to coordinate swallowing

53

Which system is the first to begin and last to finish developing?

Nervous system

54

What system begins to develop in the 4th month?

Corticospinal tracts which are required for voluntary movements

55

At which week will movement begin to be seen in the foetus?

8th week

56

What is quickening?

Maternal awareness of foetal movements from 17 weeks onwards

57

Describe the clinical advantage of quickening

Low cost, simple method of ante-partum foetal surveillance

58

When does myelination of the brain begin?

Week 36