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Flashcards in 7A/7B/8A/8B Deck (28):
1

Neural Correlates of Memory

Episodic Memory: involves the medial temporal lobes including the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex

2

4 Stages of Memory Processing

Registration: input from our senses into the memory system
Encoding: processing and combining of received information
Storage: holding of that input in the memory system
Retrieval: recovering stored information from the memory system (remembering)

3

Working Memory (Baddeley Model)

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4

Types of Long-Term Memory

1. Non-Declarative (Implicit) Memory
2. Declarative (Explicit) Memory - either Episodic or Semantic

5

Non-Declarative (Implicit) Memory (aka unconscious memory)


Familiarity such that you know how to interact with an object or situation without consciously

6

Declarative (Explicit) Memory (aka conscious memory)

Episodic: related to personal experience (i.e. your memories)
Semantic: factual memory (i.e. general knowledge)

7

Strategies for Enhancing Memory (2)

Assimilation – linking words with previous knowledge/giving words a meaning (e.g. SOCRATES)
Mnemonics – e.g. here comes the thumb, straight line to pinky (carpal bones)

8

Non-Adherence and prevalence

when a person’s behaviour does not correspond with agreed recommendations from a healthcare provider.
~50%

9

Consequences of Non-Adherence
(5)

Increased hospital admissions (1 in 5 hospital admissions)
Transplant rejection
Occurrence of complications
Development of drug resistance
Increased mortality

10

Main Causes of Non-Adherence
(3)

Regime-Related Factors: e.g. packaging, complexity of regimes, frequency of schedule, side-effects
Poor Doctor-Patient Interaction
Psycho-social Variables

11

Patient Factors Affecting Recall of Healthcare Information
(3)

Anxiety
Medical knowledge
Memory impairment

12

Presentation/Consultation Factors Affecting Recall
(6)

Amount of information
Order
Stressing importance
Specificity
Mode of presentation
Follow-up

13

Ways of Improving Adherence to Treatment
(5)

Ask!
Simplify regime and packaging
Improve interaction (communication skills)
Identify and modify beliefs
Involve significant other, wider network and the potential to use assistive technology

14

Fight vs Flight Response:

physiological response to stress

15

Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (3 stages)

Stage 1: alarm reaction, shift to sympathetic dominance (e.g. increased arousal)
Stage 2: resistance, HPA axis releases ACTH to maintain increased arousal
Stage 3: exhaustion, adrenals lose their ability to function normally

16

Psycho-Physiological and Behavioural Pathways Linking Stress and Disease

37

17

Effect of Stress on Immune Functioning

immunosuppresion

18

Type A Behaviour (5)
and links to health

Time urgency
Free-floating hostility
Hyper-aggressiveness
Focus on accomplishment
Competitive and goal-driven

Increased Risk of CHD

19

Placebo Effect:

an inactive substance (e.g. sugar pill) can sometimes improve a patient’s condition simply because the patient has the expectation that it will be helpful.

20

Social Support and Health

Individuals with adequate social relationships have a 50% likelihood of survival compared to those with poor or insufficient social relationships
Social support exerts a beneficial effect beyond the protective psychological role
Associated with decreased mortality

21

Stress Management (7 components)

Organisation
Time management
Recognising stress
Appraisal review (e.g. self-criticism)
Relaxation techniques
Social support
Formal support

22

Exposure Therapy

Treat phobias through exposure to the feared CS (e.g. car) in the absence of the UCS (e.g. accident)
Response prevention is used to keep the operant avoidant response from occurring
Highly effective for reducing anxiety responses
Controversial because intense temporary anxiety is created by treatment

23

Basis in Learning Theory

influenced by both classic and operant conditioning approaches

24

Cognitive Model of Panic Disorder

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25

Cognitive Therapy key components (3)

Thoughts, emotions and behaviour

26

Cognitive therapy

Focuses on problematic beliefs and behaviours that maintain disorders
Goal-oriented (i.e. specific and measurable)
Collaborative relationship between therapist and patient
Brief (8-16 sessions)
‘Scientific’ approach (e.g. collecting data, testing hypotheses)

27

Psychological Therapies Recommended in NICE Guidelines (4)

CBT
Cognitive analytical therapy
Humanistic therapy
Family and couple therapy

28

Psychological Therapies are recommended for...? (8)

Depression
Social anxiety
PTSD
Generalised anxiety disorder
OCD
Bulimia
Panic disorder and specific phobia
Schizophrenia