7A: Individual Influences on Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7A: Individual Influences on Behavior Deck (67):
1

Describe characteristics of psychoanalytic theory of personality

Focus is on unconscious desire and urges, and your personality is determined by these desires

Composed of id, ego, and superego

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Id

Primarily unconscious, contains primal instincts and urges

Governed by the pleasure principle, and desires immediate gratification

Does not rely on logic, driver of behavior in young children

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Primary Process

Seeks immediate gratification through immediate resolution of frustration

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How is ego different than id?

Logic controls behavior, develops as people realize wishes cannot be constantly gratified

Governed by reality principle

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Secondary Process

Ego seeks to hold off pleasure principle until realistic, acceptable gratification can be had

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Superego

For most part, unconscious

Helps inhibit the id, and bolsters ego to chase "moral goals"

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Repression

Pushing undesired or unacceptable thoughts down into the unconscious

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Suppression or denial

Conscious, deliberate form of repression, usually used to willfully forget an emotionally painful event

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Regression

Reverting back to behaviors associated with immaturity

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Projection

Attributing one's own undesired thoughts or feelings onto another person

Rorschach inkblot test relies on this, as people tell what amorphous shapes are depicting

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Displacement

Redirecting violent, sexual, or unseemly impulses towards one person to another

Teacher who hates student gets mad at spouse later

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Rationalization

Justifying one's behaviors

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Sublimation

Transferring unacceptable behaviors into acceptable and laudable behaviors

Wanting to bone a woman really bad, but instead writing a song about her

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Humanistic Theory of Personaility

Focus is on conscious, and ascribes free-will to people rather than constraints of early relationships like Freud

People are good and want to improve, called self-actualization

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Biological Perspective

Emphasizes role of genes on behavior/personality, though certain genes are not always translated into personality

Biological differences are at least somewhat responsible

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Source Traits of Five-Factor Model for Trait Theory

Openness to Experience
Conscientiousness
Extroversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism

(OCEAN)

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Social Cognitive Perspective

Emphasis is on both our effect on environment and environment's effect on us

Notion of reciprocal determinism

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Behaviorist Perspective

Personality as reflection of the behaviors that person has learned, from other people and from environment

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Mood Disorders

Characterized by the elevation or lowering of a person's mood beyond the standard range of variation

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Mood

Sustained, internal state of feeling or emotion

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Affect

Emotion that is visible at a specific point in time

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Bipolar I Disorder

Marked by manic episodes with or without depressive episodes

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Manic Episode

Part of bipolar disorder, must be at least a week in which person has irritable or euphoric mood, talks a lot, high energy and low sleep, delusional self-esteem, makes poor judgements (3 characteristics must be present)

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Bipolar II Disorder

Manic episodes are less extreme, known as hypomanic episodes

A person with this experiences hypomanic episodes and major depressive episodes, which cycle back and forth

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Major Depressive Episode

Part of bipolar disorder, where a person feels worse than usual for at least two weeks

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Major Depressive Disorder

One major depressive episode

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Symptoms Necessary for Major Depressive Disorder (5)

decreased energy, sleep disruption, change in appetite, substantial change in weight, feelings of guilt/worthlessness, difficulty thinking, loss of interest in things previously enjoyed (anhedonia, MUST be present in one of the five symptoms)

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Dysthymic Disorder

Less severe version of major depressive disorder, depressed mood mostly persistent for two years, with symptoms never absent for a period longer than 2 months

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Cyclothymic Disorder

Less severe version of Bipolar II Disorder, hypomanic episodes with smaller depressive episodes

Symptoms must be evident for two years, with no disappearance for longer than two months for diagnosis

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Seasonal Affective Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder with seasonal onset

Abnormal metabolism of melatonin and serotonin, with reduced exposure to sunlight, receive light therapy

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Types of Mood Disorders

Bipolar Disorders
Depressive Disorders
Dysthymic Disorder
Cyclothymic Disorder
Seasonal Affective Disorder

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Catecholamine Theory of Depression

Hypothesis for causation of mood disorders (also known as monoamine theory) saying too much serotonin and norepinephrine in synapses leads to mania and too little leads to depression

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Other Factors of Depresssion

High levels of glucocorticoids
High glucose metabolism in amygdala
Atrophy of hippocampus

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Anxiety Disorders

Generalized Anxiety D
Social Anxiety D
Specific Phobias
Panic D
OCD

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Undue, persistent worry about many different things for at least six months

Can result in physical symptoms such as little sleep, fatigue, and muscle tension

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Social Anxiety Disorder

Persistent anxiety caused by social situations

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Panic Disorder

Repeated panic attacks

They cause rapid heartbeat, sense of impending doom, sweating, shortness of breath

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessions which are repeated, uncontrollable thoughts or impulses that cause anxiety, use compulsions to prevent things from happening and exercise control

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Trauma Related Disroders

PTSD
Acute Stress D
Adjustment D
Reactive Attachment D

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PTSD

Develops after exposure to traumatic event (warfare, abuse, sexual assault)

One intrusion symptom, one avoidance symptom, two negative effects on cognition and mood, and two altered arousal/reactivity symptoms for diagnosis

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Acute Stress Disorder

Less intense version of PTSD

9 symptoms of PTSD but lasted 3 days to one month

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Adjustment Disorders

Emotional and behavioral occurring because a person i s unable to cope with identifiable, specific stressor

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Reactive Attachment Disorder

Infant or child does not establish healthy attachment with parent or caregiver

Withdrawal, sadness, listlessness, no interest in playing games

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Somatic Disorders

Bodily symptoms which cause stress and impairment
Include somatic symptom D, Illness Anxiety D, Conversion D

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Somatic Symptom Disorder

Displays at least one symptom of a physical illness or injury that cannot be explained by a general medical condition

Patient devotes disproportionate time worrying about it

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Illness Anxiety Disorder

Fear of developing serious medical condition

Replaced hypochondriac in DSM

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Conversion Disorder

Sufferers develop neurological symptoms such as numbness, blindness, tremors, and paralysis

Typically occur after person has experienced a stressful event, NOT consistent with neurological disease

48

Schizophrenia

Psychotic disorder with one of the following symptoms

delusions, disorganized thoughts, disorganized behavior, hallucinations, catatonia, and negative symptoms

Person must have two of these symptoms for six months and one must be hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized speech

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Paranoid-Type Schizophrenia

Characterized by hallucinations or delusions

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Disorganized-Type Shizophrenia

Disorganized speech and behavior, as well as negative symptoms of flat speech or affect

Laughing with no reason, language is used not by logic but by free association (rhymes, similar sounds)

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Catatonic-Type Schizophrenia

Characterized by catatonic behavior, either heightened or diminished motor activity

Repetition of words (echolalia) or repetition of actions (echopraxia)

Loss of sensation or rigidity (catalepsy)

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Undifferentiated-Type Schizophrenia

Case of schizophrenia that meets general requirements but not any requirements for other three types

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Residual-Type Schizophrenia

Case where worse symptoms have been resolved, some mild symptoms may still be present

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Prodromal Phase

Precursor to schizophrenia, social withdrawal, unusual behavior, unusual affect, and evidence of psychological deterioration

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Stress-Diathesis Theory

Although schizophrenia is rooted in biology and inheritance, environmental stressors are responsible for onset of the disorder

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Dopamine Hypothesis

People with schizophrenia have overactive dopamine pathway in their brains, responsible in part for positive symptoms

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Dissociative Disorders

Disruption or breakdown of perception, identity, memory, or awareness as a tool for avoiding stress

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Dissociative Identity Disorder

Two or more personalities alter back and forth

Most often resulting from extreme sexual or physical abuse as a child

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Dissociative Amnesia

Causes a person to forget important personal info or past experiences, most often caused by trauma

Usually ends suddenly and full memory returns

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Dissociative Fugue

Person suddenly goes on "journey" for a few hours or days in which they do not recall personal history

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Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

Person feels detached from own body (personalization) or from surroundings (realization)

Patients do NOT experience psychotic symptoms

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Ego-Dystonic

Patient recognizes that illness is troubling and intrusive

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Ego-Syntonic

Patient perceives behavior, dictated by disorder, as correct and normal (Personality Disorders)

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Personality Disorders

Characterized by long-lasting inflexible, maladaptive behavior that can cause cognition, emotions, etc.

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Cluster A Personality Disorders

Behavior which is odd in comparison to common expectations

Paranoid Personality Disorder
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Schizoid Personality Disorder

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Cluster B Personality Disorders

Behavior which is considered overly dramatic, emotional, or unpredictable

Antisocial Personality D
Borderline Personality D
Histrionic Personality D
Narcissistic Personality D

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Cluster C Personality Disorders

Behavior which is overly anxious or fearful

Avoidant Personality D
Dependent Personality D
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality D