8-1 (9.8 and 9.9) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8-1 (9.8 and 9.9) Deck (62):
1

is an enzyme/catalyst CHANGED in the process of speeding up rxn

NO

2

name for enzyme-cofactor complex

holoenzyme

3

name for enzyme WITHOUT any molecules bound to it

apoenzyme

4

many (coenzyme/cofactor) are vitamins

what's the dif bt coenzyme and cofactor

coenzymes

cof = non organic
coe = organic

5

irreversibly bound coenzymes are called "" groups; is it altered or unaltered

coenzyme-cosubstrate is (loosely/tightly) bound; is it altered or unaltered during catalysis

cofactor is usually (tightly/loosely) bound

prosthetic; unaltered

tightly; altered

loosely

6

define catalytic efficiency

number of molecules of product formed per second

7

define compartmentalization

subcellular localization of enzyme

8

How do endergonic reactions proceed under physiologic conditions?

Linked reaction: exergonic rxn provides energy thru ATP to endergonic rxn

9

it is incorrect to think of enzyme:substrate interaction as lock and key

correct way?

induced fit
(both enzyme and substrate change so that substrate can fit onto enzyme)

10

ES is not made from "" (equation)

ES is only made from what (eq)

E+P

E + S

11

def allosteric regulation

regulation by effectors that bind to enzyme at a site OTHER than active site

12

homo vs heterotropic allosteric regulation

homo-effector is substrate
hetero-effector is NOT substrate

13

Km name
what does it signify

km is michaelis constant
Km is the [S] at which V = Vmax/2

14

read: Michaelis-Menten equation

-

15

the "" system includes skin, hair, sweat glands

integumentary

16

"" is largest organ in body

skin

17

melanocytes provide melanin to "" cells

keratinocytes

18

vasodilation of blood vessels keeps body (warm/cool)

cool

19

terminal portion of hair IS the hair bulb with dermal "", which contains the capillary network

papilla

20

describe acne

follicle is CLOGGED with pus, which contains sebum, dead skin cells, and bacteria

21

off which layer do dead cells slough off

Corneum

22

which layer contains anti-dessicant properties

granulosum

23

which layer contains keratinized cells

Corneum

24

Skin pigmentation is NOT due to 1
DUE to 2

NOT: due to # of melanocytes
DUE to rate of melanin production

25

Tanning:
UVA: causes 1 of melanin
UVB: 2 how affects melanin

Which leads to delayed tanning? (3)

1 photo-oxidation
2 increases melanin production
3 UVB

26

Read: epidermis epithelium type naming is done by looking at cells AT SURFACE (deeper layers may be different)

-

27

what regulation took the regulation of vitamin industry away from FDA and classified it as food

Dietary Supplement HEA

28

what online resource can you use to find out whether a product is legitimate

Cochrane Reviews

29

What are the # cutoffs for major vs trace minerals

major: greater than 100 mg/day

30

bioavailability def

amount in food vs what is absorbed

31

increment in sodium excretion is associated with what

increase in BP

32

potassium excretion is associated with (lower/higher) risk of cardiovascular events

lower

33

daily req for Na #
potassium

1.5g/day
P = 4.7g/day

34

daily intake in potassium is (too little/too much)

too little

35

"" sold in the US is fortified with selected B vitamins

flour

36

read: old and pregnant ppl may require vitamin supplementation

-

37

proof that a dietary supplement is safe (is/is NOT) required

NOT

38

which vitamin binds to intrinsic factor

B12

39

What's the only vitamin that can cause REALLY bad stuff to happen if you take TOO MUCH of it

bad stuff = congenital malformation in fetus, hip fracture

which vitamin is classified as "very toxic"

Vit A: retinoid form

very toxic = Vit D

40

which vitamin is prescribed to treat atherosclerosis

E

41

example of INHIBITING mineral to mineral interaction

iron and calcium

42

high fiber (increases/decreases) absorption of mineral

dec

43

Na is (in/extra) cellular

extra

44

high sodium intake can increase "" loss thru urine

Ca

45

what MINERAL can counteract the effects of excess sodium

potassium

46

what foods contain potassium

fruits and veggies

47

hypokalemia (low potassium) causes what

cardiac arrhythmia

48

DASH study: what did they change in diet

increase fruits and veggies

49

DASH study: increased fruits/veggies did what

lower BP

50

what's the most abundant mineral in body

Ca

51

distribution of Ca in body

99% in bone and teeth
1% in circulation and cells

52

absorption of Ca is enhanced by what Vit

D

53

phosphorus is found in what foods

dairy and meat

54

high intake of cola means high intake of what vitamin/mineral

phosphorus

55

read: high intake of cola linked to osteroporosis

-

56

Mg deficiency fact need to know

Mg def manifests as hypocalcemia bc Mg is required for PTH release

57

where can you get Mg in diet

plant foods

58

read: iron deficiency is common in children and menstruating women

-

59

Wilson's disease is a disorder of "" metabolism

copper

60

list out your MAJOR minerals

-Na
-Potassium
-Ca
-Phosphorus
-Mg

61

What trace mineral prevents dental caries

fluoride

62

there is risk for deficiency of ALL trace minerals for these ppl

ppl on long term parenteral nutrition