What is chronic liver disease?
Liver disease lasting longer than 6 months which leads to cirrhosis
What is the end-stage of chronic liver disease if untreated?
What hepatic cells become activated to start fibrosis?
Hepatic stellate cells
Lots of liver diseases are chronic.
What is the official definition of chronic liver disease?
A disease lasting > 6 months WHICH LEADS TO CIRRHOSIS
What is NAFLD?
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Which diseases cause NAFLD?
NAFLD / NASH is a fatty liver in the (presence / absence) of other causes.
What is NASH?
Fat in the liver AND inflammation
Triglycerides are stored in pockets away from the mitochondria of hepatocytes (NAFLD). What happens when these triglycerides are exposed to oxidative stress?
non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, i.e inflammation
How is NAFLD diagnosed?
Ultrasound / Liver biopsy if required
How is NAFLD treated?
How is NASH diagnosed?
The end stage of NASH is ___.
How is NASH treated?
Exercise and weight loss
What type of liver disease is primary biliary cholangitis?
What tissue is affected by autoantibodies in PBC?
Biliary tree tissue
Who tends to get PBC?
Middle aged women
What are some symptoms of PBC?
Itch without rash
Xanthelasma / Xanthomas
How is PBC treated?
PBC involves the immune system attacking the ___ ducts.
What is radical treatment for PBC?
Who tends to be affected by autoimmune hepatitis?
How would autoimmune hepatitis be described by a pathologist?
Chronic hepatitis with piecemeal necrosis and lobular involvement
What can trigger autoimmune hepatitis?
How is autoimmune hepatitis treated?
Immunosuppressors (azathioprine, steroid-sparer)
Eventually, those with autoimmune hepatitis will go on to develop ___.
but 13-20% of patients have spontaneous resolution
What is primary sclerosing cholangitis?
Autoimmune disease of LARGE bile ducts
primary biliary cholangitis affects the small bile ducts
What IBD is associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis?
What investigations are used to diagnose primary sclerosing cholangitis?
What is haemochromatosis?
Autosomal recessive disease of iron overload