8: Aetiologies and pathophysiology of chronic liver disease Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal Week 6 2016/17 > 8: Aetiologies and pathophysiology of chronic liver disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8: Aetiologies and pathophysiology of chronic liver disease Deck (42)
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1

What is chronic liver disease?

Liver disease lasting longer than 6 months which leads to cirrhosis

2

What is the end-stage of chronic liver disease if untreated?

Cirrhosis

3

What hepatic cells become activated to start fibrosis?

Hepatic stellate cells

4

Lots of liver diseases are chronic.

What is the official definition of chronic liver disease?

A disease lasting > 6 months WHICH LEADS TO CIRRHOSIS

5

What is NAFLD?

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

6

Which diseases cause NAFLD?

Hypertension

Hyperlipidaemia

T2 diabetes

Obesity

7

NAFLD / NASH is a fatty liver in the (presence / absence) of other causes.

absence

8

What is NASH?

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

Fat in the liver AND inflammation

9

Triglycerides are stored in pockets away from the mitochondria of hepatocytes (NAFLD). What happens when these triglycerides are exposed to oxidative stress?

NASH

non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, i.e inflammation

10

How is NAFLD diagnosed?

Ultrasound / Liver biopsy if required

11

How is NAFLD treated?

Weight loss

Exercise

12

How is NASH diagnosed?

Liver biopsy

13

The end stage of NASH is ___.

cirrhosis

14

How is NASH treated?

Exercise and weight loss

Experimental drugs

15

What type of liver disease is primary biliary cholangitis?

Autoimmune

16

What tissue is affected by autoantibodies in PBC?

Biliary tree tissue

17

Who tends to get PBC?

Middle aged women

18

What are some symptoms of PBC?

Fatigue

Itch without rash

Xanthelasma / Xanthomas

19

How is PBC treated?

Ursodeoxycholic acid

20

PBC involves the immune system attacking the ___ ducts.

bile

21

What is radical treatment for PBC?

Liver transplant

22

Who tends to be affected by autoimmune hepatitis?

Young women

23

How would autoimmune hepatitis be described by a pathologist?

Chronic hepatitis with piecemeal necrosis and lobular involvement

24

What can trigger autoimmune hepatitis?

Viruses

Toxins

Drugs

25

How is autoimmune hepatitis treated?

Corticosteroids (prednisolone)

Immunosuppressors (azathioprine, steroid-sparer)

26

Eventually, those with autoimmune hepatitis will go on to develop ___.

cirrhosis

but 13-20% of patients have spontaneous resolution

27

What is primary sclerosing cholangitis?

Autoimmune disease of LARGE bile ducts

primary biliary cholangitis affects the small bile ducts

28

What IBD is associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis?

UC

29

What investigations are used to diagnose primary sclerosing cholangitis?

MRCP

ERCP

30

What is haemochromatosis?

Autosomal recessive disease of iron overload