8: Anatomy - Faecal continence Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal Week 4 2016/17 > 8: Anatomy - Faecal continence > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8: Anatomy - Faecal continence Deck (62):
1

What structures are included in the distal GI tract?

Rectum

Anal canal

Anus

2

What is the function of the distal GI tract?

Excrete stool

3

What is the holding area for faeces?

Rectum

4

Which nerve fibres supply the rectum to detect its level of "fullness"?

Visceral afferents

5

Muscle sphincters in the distal part of the anus (contract / relax) to prevent defecation.

contract

6

Muscle sphincters in the distal part of the anus (contract / relax) to allow defecation.

relax

7

The rectum is located within the ___ cavity.

pelvic

8

Which muscle forms the pelvic floor?

Levator ani muscle

9

Which tracts pass through the levator ani?

GI tract

Renal tract

Reproductive tract

10

At which line does the sigmoid colon become the rectum?

Recto-sigmoid junction

11

At which vertebral level is the recto-sigmoid junction found?

S3

12

Which part of the rectum stores most of the faecal material and is found superior to the levator ani?

Rectal ampulla

13

The walls of the rectal ___ can relax to accomodate faeces.

ampulla

14

What lies anterior to the inferior rectum in males?

Prostate gland

15

What lies anterior to the inferior rectum in females?

Vagina and cervix

16

When naming pouches, what does "vesico/vesical" mean?

Bladder

17

What is the pouch found in the abdominal cavity of males?

Rectovesical pouch

18

What are the two pouches found in the abdominal cavity of females?

Rectouterine pouch (of Douglas)

Vesicouterine pouch

19

Which muscle supplies support for the pelvic organs?

Levator ani

20

Which branch of the sacral plexus supplies the levator ani?

"Nerve to levator ani"

not joking

21

The pudendal nerves supply the levator ani. At which vertebral levels do these nerves originate?

S2,3,4

s2,3,4 keeps the pelvis off the floor

22

Which muscle of the levator ani acts like a sphincter to constrict the rectum voluntarily?

Puborectalis

23

Which two anal sphincters maintain faecal continence?

 

 

 

 

 

Internal anal sphincter

External anal sphincter

24

Which type of muscle makes up the internal anal sphincter?

Smooth muscle

25

Which type of muscle makes up the external anal sphincter?

Skeletal muscle

26

The anal canal is found inferior to the ___ junction.

anorectal

27

Which autonomic nerves contract the internal anal sphincter?

Sympathetic nerves

fight or flight - why would you defecate while running away from a lion

28

Which autonomic nerves relax the internal anal sphincter?

Parasympathetic nerves

29

Which stimulus relaxes the internal anal sphincter?

Distension of the rectal ampulla

30

Which nerve stimulates the contraction of the external anal sphincter?

Pudendal nerve

S2,3,4

31

Which part of the body is found below the levator ani?

Perineum

32

Generally, which arms of the nervous system supply structures in the pelvis?

Visceral afferents

Sympathetic

Parasympathetic

33

Generally, which arms of the nervous system supply the perineum?

Somatic motor

Somatic sensory

34

Sympathetic nerves from which spinal cord levels supply the rectum and anal canal?

T12 - L2

35

Where do rectum / anal canal sympathetic nerves synapse?

Inferior mesenteric ganglia

36

How do post-synaptic sympathetic nerves travel to the rectum and anal canal?

Periarterial plexuses

37

Sympathetic nerves (contract / relax) the internal anal sphincter.

contract

38

Sympathetic nerves (inhibit / stimulate) peristalsis.

inhibit

39

Parasympathetic fibres supply the rectum / anal canal from which spinal cord levels?

S2 - S4

40

How do parasympathetic nerves travel to the rectum / anal canal from S2 - S4?

Pelvic splanchnic nerves

41

Where do parasympathetic nerves supplying the rectum / anal canal synapse?

In the walls of the rectum / anal canal

42

Parasympathetic nerves (contract / relax) the internal anal sphincter.

relax

43

Parasympathetic nerves (inhibit / stimulate) peristalsis.

stimulate

44

Which nerves piggy-back on the parasympathetic nerves as they return back to S2-S4 on the way to the CNS?

Visceral afferents

45

Which somatic nerves travel from S2-S4 to contract the external anal sphincter and puborectalis?

Somatic motor (via the pudendal nerves, S2-S4)

46

Which nerve, a branch of the sacral plexus, supplies the external anal sphincter?

Pudendal nerve

47

Which two holes in the pelvis transmit the pudendal nerve?

Greater sciatic foramen

Lesser sciatic foramen

48

In women, which event can damage pudendal nerve fibres or external anal sphincter muscles?

Childbirth

49

Why may a woman be incontinent after childbirth?

Tearing of perineum inc. nerves, muscle and external anal sphincter

50

What is the pectinate line?

Line between endoderm and ectoderm

arterial, venous, lymphatic and nerve supplies differ above and below

51

What are the major lymph nodes draining pelvic organs, from inferior to superior?

External iliac

Internal iliac

Common iliac

Lumbar

52

Which artery supplies the hindgut organs?

Inferior mesenteric artery

53

Which artery supplies the remainder of the GI tract after the hindgut?

Internal iliac artery

54

Which arteries anastomose to supply the rectum and anal canal?

Inferior mesenteric artery

Internal iliac artery

55

Which vein drains the rectum and anal canal above the pectinate line?

Inferior mesenteric vein

56

Which venous system drains the hindgut?

Portal venous system

57

Which vein drains the anus below the pectinate line?

Internal iliac vein

58

Which venous system drains below the pectinate line?

Systemic venous system

59

Are rectal varices and haemorrhoids the same thing?

No

60

What are rectal varices?

Dilation of portal-systemic anastomoses due to portal hypertension

61

What are haemorrhoids?

Prolapses of rectal venous plexuses

62

Which areas, near the anal canal, are filled with fat and loose connective tissue?

Ischioanal fossae