What structures are included in the distal GI tract?
What is the function of the distal GI tract?
What is the holding area for faeces?
Which nerve fibres supply the rectum to detect its level of "fullness"?
Muscle sphincters in the distal part of the anus (contract / relax) to prevent defecation.
Muscle sphincters in the distal part of the anus (contract / relax) to allow defecation.
The rectum is located within the ___ cavity.
Which muscle forms the pelvic floor?
Levator ani muscle
Which tracts pass through the levator ani?
At which line does the sigmoid colon become the rectum?
At which vertebral level is the recto-sigmoid junction found?
Which part of the rectum stores most of the faecal material and is found superior to the levator ani?
The walls of the rectal ___ can relax to accomodate faeces.
What lies anterior to the inferior rectum in males?
What lies anterior to the inferior rectum in females?
Vagina and cervix
When naming pouches, what does "vesico/vesical" mean?
What is the pouch found in the abdominal cavity of males?
What are the two pouches found in the abdominal cavity of females?
Rectouterine pouch (of Douglas)
Which muscle supplies support for the pelvic organs?
Which branch of the sacral plexus supplies the levator ani?
"Nerve to levator ani"
The pudendal nerves supply the levator ani. At which vertebral levels do these nerves originate?
s2,3,4 keeps the pelvis off the floor
Which muscle of the levator ani acts like a sphincter to constrict the rectum voluntarily?
Which two anal sphincters maintain faecal continence?
Internal anal sphincter
External anal sphincter
Which type of muscle makes up the internal anal sphincter?
Which type of muscle makes up the external anal sphincter?
The anal canal is found inferior to the ___ junction.
Which autonomic nerves contract the internal anal sphincter?
fight or flight - why would you defecate while running away from a lion
Which autonomic nerves relax the internal anal sphincter?
Which stimulus relaxes the internal anal sphincter?
Distension of the rectal ampulla
Which nerve stimulates the contraction of the external anal sphincter?