8 - Autoimmune Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8 - Autoimmune Diseases Deck (30):
1

Autoreactive B cells and autoantibodies

Directly cytotoxic
Activation of complement
Interfere with normal physiological function

2

Autoreactive T cells

Directly cytotoxic
Inflammatory cytokine production

3

Hashimotos thyroiditis

Destruction of thyroid follicles by autoimmune process
Associated with autoantibodies to thyroglobulin and to thyroid peroxidase
Leads to hypothyroidism

4

Grave's disease

Inappropriate stimulation of thyroid gland by anti-TSH-autoantibody
Leads to hyperthyroidism

5

Failure of vitamin B12 absorption leads to what type of anaemia

Pernicious anaemia

6

Type of non-specific tests

Inflammatory marker

7

Type of disease specific diagnostic test

Autoantibody testing
HLA typing

8

What does HLA stand for?

Human leukocyte antigen

9

What are non-specific markers of systemic inflammation

ESR
CRP
Ferritin
Fibrinogen
Haptoglobin
Albumin
Complement

10

What treatments are there for autoimmune issues?

Supportive
Immunosuppression
Preventative

11

Anti-nuclear antibodies

Bind to skin cells that have been damaged by UV light.
Involved in SLE so the immune system forms antibodies against proteins and DNA in the nuclei of cells

12

What is SLE?

Systemic lupus erythematous

13

SLE: common features

Photosensitivity, malar rash, alopecia, mouth ulcers, arthralgia, arthritis, fatigue

14

SLE: internal organ involvement and problems with them

Kidney: lupus nephritis
Lung: pleurisy / pleural effusion
Brain: cerebral lupus, seizures, strokes

15

SLE: testing

Antinuclear antibodies

16

SLE: treatment

Immunosuppression

17

What is vasculitis?

Inflammation of small vessels

18

What does ANCA stand for?

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

19

3 types of ANCA vasculitis

Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA)
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)
Eosinophilic granulomatosus with polyangiitis (EGPA)

20

What is a granuloma?

Mass of inflamed tissue

21

What is polyangiitis?

Many vessels inflamed

22

How does a granuloma cause damage? Which areas?

Destructive lesions
e.g. nose, sinus, trachea, lung, orbits

23

Where does inflammation of small vessels cause most damage?

Skin
Kidney
Lung
Gut

24

Which Ab are involved in Reynaud's?

Anticentromere Ab

25

What is primary Reynaud's?

Common in young women
Runs in families
ANA negative
Fairly harmless

26

What is secondary Reynaud's?

ANA positive
May be associated with scleroderma

27

Main features of scleroderma

Autoimmunity leads to ischaemia and fibrosis

Raynaud's phenomenom, skin thickening and tightening in fingers and face

28

Internal organ involvement for scleroderma

Fibrosis may affect lungs, gut, kidneys

29

Testing for Scleroderma

Anti-nuclear antibodies

30

Treatment for scleroderma

Immunosuppression

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