Flashcards in 8 - Autoimmune Diseases Deck (30):
Autoreactive B cells and autoantibodies
Activation of complement
Interfere with normal physiological function
Autoreactive T cells
Inflammatory cytokine production
Destruction of thyroid follicles by autoimmune process
Associated with autoantibodies to thyroglobulin and to thyroid peroxidase
Leads to hypothyroidism
Inappropriate stimulation of thyroid gland by anti-TSH-autoantibody
Leads to hyperthyroidism
Failure of vitamin B12 absorption leads to what type of anaemia
Type of non-specific tests
Type of disease specific diagnostic test
What does HLA stand for?
Human leukocyte antigen
What are non-specific markers of systemic inflammation
What treatments are there for autoimmune issues?
Bind to skin cells that have been damaged by UV light.
Involved in SLE so the immune system forms antibodies against proteins and DNA in the nuclei of cells
What is SLE?
Systemic lupus erythematous
SLE: common features
Photosensitivity, malar rash, alopecia, mouth ulcers, arthralgia, arthritis, fatigue
SLE: internal organ involvement and problems with them
Kidney: lupus nephritis
Lung: pleurisy / pleural effusion
Brain: cerebral lupus, seizures, strokes
What is vasculitis?
Inflammation of small vessels
What does ANCA stand for?
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
3 types of ANCA vasculitis
Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA)
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)
Eosinophilic granulomatosus with polyangiitis (EGPA)
What is a granuloma?
Mass of inflamed tissue
What is polyangiitis?
Many vessels inflamed
How does a granuloma cause damage? Which areas?
e.g. nose, sinus, trachea, lung, orbits
Where does inflammation of small vessels cause most damage?
Which Ab are involved in Reynaud's?
What is primary Reynaud's?
Common in young women
Runs in families
What is secondary Reynaud's?
May be associated with scleroderma
Main features of scleroderma
Autoimmunity leads to ischaemia and fibrosis
Raynaud's phenomenom, skin thickening and tightening in fingers and face
Internal organ involvement for scleroderma
Fibrosis may affect lungs, gut, kidneys
Testing for Scleroderma