8: Immunology and the eye Flashcards Preview

Ophthalmology Week 1 2017/18 > 8: Immunology and the eye > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8: Immunology and the eye Deck (38)
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1

What are the two types of immunity?

Innate immunity - non-specific

Adaptive immunity - specific

2

Does the eye have a physical barrier to infection?

No skin

But conjunctiva and cornea

3

How does the eye clear pathogens?

Blink reflex

4

What helps to flush pathogens off the surface of the eye?

Lacrimal fluid

Aqueous fluid

Mucus

5

What are the main cells of the innate immune system?

Neutrophils

Macrophages (link innate and adaptive)

6

Which cells, found in the conjuncitva, release inflammatory mediators when they degranulate?

Mast cells

7

Which cells act as antigen presenting cells?

Macrophages

Dendritic cells

B cells

8

What is a type of macrophage specific to the eye?

Langerhans cell

9

What is the principle antigen presenting cell of the eye?

Langerhans cell

10

Where are most Langerhans cells found?

Limbus

11

What is the only part of the eye with lymphatic drainage?

Conjunctiva

12

The cornea and sclera are (vascular / avascular).

avascular

13

What type of lymphatic tissue is found in the lacrimal drainage system?

MALT

14

What is immune privilege?

Some parts of body tolerate antigens without initiating an inflammatory immune response

15

What are some areas of the body which have immune privilege?

EYES

Testes

Placenta / foetus

16

What is ACAID?

Anterior chamber-associated immune deviation

If you put an antigen in the anterior chamber, it is ignored systemically

17

Why is ACAID useful?

Stops your eye blowing up with inflammation

18

What happens when immune privilege breaks down?

Eye damage > visual loss

19

What is sympathetic ophthalmia?

BILATERAL granulomatous uveitis

caused by trauma in ONE EYE

20

Which famous person had sympathetic ophthalmia?

Louis Braille

21

What is thought to cause sympathetic ophthalmia?

Immune privilege problem causing an autoimmune reaction in both eyes

22

Which cells are the primary mediators of sympathetic ophthalmia?

T cells

23

In sympathetic ophthalmia, what names are given to

a) the injured eye

b) the other eye?

a) Exciting eye

b) Sympathetic eye

24

Which T cells mediate the

a) early

b) late phases of sympathetic ophthalmia?

a) CD4T cells

b) CD8T cells

25

What is the mechanism of sympathetic ophthalmia?

a) Trauma releases intraocular antigens which were there originally

b) Helper T cells transport antigen to lymph nodes

c) Activated cytotoxic T cells return to BOTH eyes, encounter antigen and cause an inflammatory reaction

26

What diseases are caused by failure of the eye's immune system?

Recurrent infection

Allergy

Hypersensitivity

Autoimmune disease

Cancer

27

What is hypersensitivity?

Immune response causing collateral damage

28

What mediates Type I hypersensitivity reactions?

IgE

which activates mast cells and causes release of inflammatory mediators

29

What is an example of a Type I hypersensitivity disease of the eye?

Allergic conjunctivitis

30

What is chemosis?

Conjunctival oedema