Flashcards in #8. Mechanism of Musculoskeletal Injury & Innjury Classifications Deck (47):
"An external force acting on the body causing
internal reactions within the tissues"
load - tissue properties
"Ability of a tissue to resist a load"
Stiffness - greater stiffness = greater magnitude load can
"internal resistance to a load"
stress - tissue propterties
"internal change in tissue (eg. length) resulting in deformation"
strain - tissue properties
"The amount of
deformation viscoelastic tissues can tolerate
before succumbing to stress"
TEPNF acronym for stress strain relationship?
Toeing, Elastic, Plastic, Necking, Failure
In an indirect impact injury, where does the injury happen?
away from the point of injury
Tissue Loading: Force that results in tissue
crush – two forces applied
towards one another
Tissue Loading: force that pulls and stretches tissue
Tissue Loading: Force that moves across the
parallel organization of tissue
-two force pairs act at
opposite ends of a structure (4 points)
-three forces cause bending (3 points)
-already bowed structures encounter axial loading
-loads caused by twisting in opposite directions from opposite ends
-shear stress encountered will
be perpendicular and parallel to the loads
-ends up tearing muscle tissue too usually
Burst fracture of the spine is an example of what type of tissue loading?
A hamstring strain is an example of what type of tissue loading?
Spondylolisthesis (vertebrae sliding over each other) is an example of what type of tissue loading?
ACL injury is an example of what tissue loading?
"Pinching of intervening
tissue between two
Where is impingement the most common?
at the hips and shoulders because of the bursa there that are supposed to cushion forces, allowing tendons to slide
Injury Classification according to what 4 criteria?
1. Stage of injury or healing
2. Severity of injury
3. Type of tissue damaged/injured
4. Type of mechanism
A musculotendon injury is a sprain/strain?
"the bursa that is wrapped around the tendon that is inflamed"
What degree of muscle injury is this? "Complete rupture of muscle or musculotendinous junction. Significant impairment. Great deal of pain initially but diminishes due to nerve damage"
What degree of muscle injury is this? "Multiple fibers torn. Active contraction painful. Divot is palpable. Some swelling and discolouration"
2nd degree - you could lose your fingers in where the tear is
What degree of muscle injury is this? "Some fibers stretched or torn. Full ROM, but painful"
Loss of sodium or electrolyte balance can cause muscle ____.
"Following injury, muscles within an effected area contract to splint the area in an effort to minimize pain through limitation of motion"
Two types of muscle spasms?
clonic and tonic
___ spasm is alternating involuntary muscular contractions and relaxations in quick
clonic - eg. eye twitch
___ spasm is rigid
contraction that lasts
a period of time
tonic - eg. painful cramps in feet/calves
A ____ is a bruise that results form a sudden traumatic blow that compresses the soft or bony tissues. It creates hemorrhaging which causes ____.
ecchymosis (discoloration of skin)
Why is it important to do RICE with a contusion?
The body might get confused and end up laying down bone instead of muscle tissue - bad
Breaking point for tendon injuries is at _-_% of increased length.
Tears in tendon injuries generally occur where?
in the muscle and not tendon
"Gradual onset, with diffuse tenderness
due to repeated microtrauma and
key to treatment for tendinitis?
If tendinitis is not allowed to properly heal, what occurs?
Tendinosis - less inflammation but more visibly swollen with stiffness and restricted motion
How do you treat tendinosis?
stretching and strengthening
What is tenosynovitis?
inflammation of the synovial sheath
Ligamentous Sprains: SHARP acronym?
"result of traumatic joint twist that causes stretching or tearing of connective tissue"
ligamentous sprains - results in SHARP
"Brief, transient injury
dislocation & spontaneous joint relocation"
subluxation - result in separation of bony articulating surfaces
Dislocations are most often seen in high ___ sports.
What do you need to apply to prevent osteoporosis?
Greenstick bone fractures are common in what type of people?
people who havent grown yet
If someone gets an oblique fracture, what do they usually get?