#8. Mechanism of Musculoskeletal Injury & Innjury Classifications Flashcards Preview

EPHE 344 > #8. Mechanism of Musculoskeletal Injury & Innjury Classifications > Flashcards

Flashcards in #8. Mechanism of Musculoskeletal Injury & Innjury Classifications Deck (47):
1

"An external force acting on the body causing
internal reactions within the tissues"

load - tissue properties

2

"Ability of a tissue to resist a load"

Stiffness - greater stiffness = greater magnitude load can
resist

3

"internal resistance to a load"

stress - tissue propterties

4

"internal change in tissue (eg. length) resulting in deformation"

strain - tissue properties

5

"The amount of
deformation viscoelastic tissues can tolerate
before succumbing to stress"

stress/strain relationship

6

TEPNF acronym for stress strain relationship?

Toeing, Elastic, Plastic, Necking, Failure

7

In an indirect impact injury, where does the injury happen?

away from the point of injury

8

Tissue Loading: Force that results in tissue
crush – two forces applied
towards one another

compression

9

Tissue Loading: force that pulls and stretches tissue

tension

10

Tissue Loading: Force that moves across the
parallel organization of tissue

shearing

11

Tissue Loading:
-two force pairs act at
opposite ends of a structure (4 points)
-three forces cause bending (3 points)
-already bowed structures encounter axial loading

Bending

12

Tissue Loading:
-loads caused by twisting in opposite directions from opposite ends
-shear stress encountered will
be perpendicular and parallel to the loads
-ends up tearing muscle tissue too usually

Torsion

13

Burst fracture of the spine is an example of what type of tissue loading?

Compression

14

A hamstring strain is an example of what type of tissue loading?

Tension

15

Spondylolisthesis (vertebrae sliding over each other) is an example of what type of tissue loading?

shear stress

16

ACL injury is an example of what tissue loading?

torsion

17

"Pinching of intervening
tissue between two
bony structures"

impingement

18

Where is impingement the most common?

at the hips and shoulders because of the bursa there that are supposed to cushion forces, allowing tendons to slide

19

Injury Classification according to what 4 criteria?

1. Stage of injury or healing
2. Severity of injury
3. Type of tissue damaged/injured
4. Type of mechanism

20

A musculotendon injury is a sprain/strain?

strain

21

"the bursa that is wrapped around the tendon that is inflamed"

tenosynovitis

22

What degree of muscle injury is this? "Complete rupture of muscle or musculotendinous junction. Significant impairment. Great deal of pain initially but diminishes due to nerve damage"

3rd degree

23

What degree of muscle injury is this? "Multiple fibers torn. Active contraction painful. Divot is palpable. Some swelling and discolouration"

2nd degree - you could lose your fingers in where the tear is

24

What degree of muscle injury is this? "Some fibers stretched or torn. Full ROM, but painful"

1st degree

25

Loss of sodium or electrolyte balance can cause muscle ____.

cramps

26

"Following injury, muscles within an effected area contract to splint the area in an effort to minimize pain through limitation of motion"

muscle guarding

27

Two types of muscle spasms?

clonic and tonic

28

___ spasm is alternating involuntary muscular contractions and relaxations in quick
succession

clonic - eg. eye twitch

29

___ spasm is rigid
contraction that lasts
a period of time

tonic - eg. painful cramps in feet/calves

30

RICE acronym?

Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation

31

A ____ is a bruise that results form a sudden traumatic blow that compresses the soft or bony tissues. It creates hemorrhaging which causes ____.

contusions
ecchymosis (discoloration of skin)

32

Why is it important to do RICE with a contusion?

The body might get confused and end up laying down bone instead of muscle tissue - bad

33

Breaking point for tendon injuries is at _-_% of increased length.

6-8

34

Tears in tendon injuries generally occur where?

in the muscle and not tendon

35

"Gradual onset, with diffuse tenderness
due to repeated microtrauma and
degenerative changes"

tendinitis

36

key to treatment for tendinitis?

rest

37

If tendinitis is not allowed to properly heal, what occurs?

Tendinosis - less inflammation but more visibly swollen with stiffness and restricted motion

38

How do you treat tendinosis?

stretching and strengthening

39

What is tenosynovitis?

inflammation of the synovial sheath

40

Ligamentous Sprains: SHARP acronym?

Swelling
Heat
Altered function
Redness
Pain

41

"result of traumatic joint twist that causes stretching or tearing of connective tissue"

ligamentous sprains - results in SHARP

42

"Brief, transient injury
involving partial
dislocation & spontaneous joint relocation"

subluxation - result in separation of bony articulating surfaces

43

Dislocations are most often seen in high ___ sports.

velocity

44

What do you need to apply to prevent osteoporosis?

stress

45

Greenstick bone fractures are common in what type of people?

people who havent grown yet

46

If someone gets an oblique fracture, what do they usually get?

screws

47

What type of fracture occurs when a rotary force is applied during the break?

spiral fracture