Flashcards in 8.2- Changing Places: Relationships And Connections Deck (38):
Places change over time- they are dynamic and should be understood as
A coming together of people, ideas, wealth and information rather than simple locations (e.g. think of the economic rise and fall of British industrial cities in the 19th and 20th century and the impact this had on their population and environment
British seaside resorts have also undergone significant change in the last 50 years as they have had to adapt to
Increasing numbers of British people travelling abroad for their holidays
What factor tends to have the biggest impact on the character of place?
Often, changes to the character of place result from:
- migration and conflict (Damascus, Syria)
- terrorism (New York City, 9/11)
- industrial accidents (Chernobyl)
- natural disasters
- climate change (The Maldives)
Factors like these affect the lives of people living and working there.
External forces can also bring about change which can be positive or negative- what are the examples of agents of change?
- government policies
- decisions of multinational corporations
- the impacts of international or global institutions e.g. The World Bank, WHO
Give an example and explain the impact of government policies (agent of change) on place?
Gov policies can directly affect the demographic characteristics of places e.g. by introducing policies to control population- e.g. China’s one child policy (successful in reducing birth rate and rapid population growth but consequence is gender imbalance and now ageing population to be cared for
In France, the gov introduced successful policies e.g. lower taxes and increased maternity leave conditions to increase birth rate
Give an example and explain the impact of the decisions of multinational corporations on place?
- Detroit was a major global centre of car manufacturing in early and mid 20th century, with MNCs such as Ford and General Motors located there
- investment from the MNCs gave the city a massive economic boost with large numbers of jobs being created which offered comparatively high wages
- this altered the demographic characteristics of the city by attracting large numbers of migrants from the USA and outside- pop grew to 128 million in 1950s
- after 1950s, many of manufacturing MNCs closed or relocated to places with cheap labour e.g. Mexico=
- massive pop decline go 700,000 by 2010
- huge reductions in employment, 25% of Detroit workforce in 2010
- social deprivation- Detroit has some of highest crime rates in USA
Give an example and explain the impacts of international or global institutions
international institutions can affect demographic and cultural characteristics of place through controlling migration- in Harrogate the increase in East European, particularly Polish people in the population is linked to the UK being part of the EU and laws on free movement of labour . Harrogate now has more languages being spoken, English language courses being offered and new shops such as polish supermarket, Sowa in the town centre
Give examples of things which may create tensions between different stakeholders?
- proposed housing estates
- landfill sites
- wind farms
Other government policies can affect the demographic, economic and social characteristics of places e.g. by
Controlling immigration- after the Second World War, the government encourage immigration from New Commonwealth countries; Brick Lane is an area where migrants from Bangladesh settled
“Brick Lane is an area where migrants from Bangladesh settled” how has this had an impact on Brick Lane?
41% of the population are from Bangladeshi origin and 40% of the population are Muslim = this area is known as Banglatown = good reputation for curries and there is a mix of restaurants and shops representing the cultural diversity
In contrast to the external forces ( government policies, impacts of international or global institutions, decisions of MNCs) what other things cause places to change?
Changes can arise from shifting flows of:
People, money and investment, ideas and resources
How have shifting flows of people caused demographic change in Harrogate?
Migration of east European into Harrogate is changing the ethnic mix
How have shifting flows of people caused cultural change in Harrogate?
- New languages spoken e.g. polish and English courses need to be delivered
- New shops to accommodate ethnic mix e.g. Sowa, polish supermarket
- also provide labour = higher proportion of working age
How have shifting flows of people caused demographic change in a Brick Lane?
Series of migrations over time- French Protestants, Irish and Jews, Bangladeshis. Gentrification is meaning some lower income groups (including Bangladeshi) are being forced out; other ethnic groups and young professionals on higher incomes are moving in
How has shifting flows of people caused cultural change in Brick Lane?
- multi- ethnic community
- New languages spoken
- New religions; this has had an impact on us elf buildings e.g. a church became a chapel, then a synagogue and is now the Jamme Masjid mosque.
- food= area now notorious for its curries- guidebooks say “it is THE place to go for a curry”
How has shifting flows of money and investment caused demographic change in Harrogate?
government policy to increase affordable housing has encouraged property developers and companies to build more low cost housing and has caused the proposed sites e.g. Harlow Carr/ Duchy and Pannal = likely to lead to a younger age profile where the new low cost housing is built e.g. at the top of Harlow Hill in the Duchy Ward- New housing developments will also increase overall population size
Apart from government policy in Harrogate what other example of shifting flows of money and investment can lead to demographic change?
Private companies bring investment into Harrogate, investing in specialist dementia care homes and also many retirement and sheltered housing complexes. In particular, there will be a new dementia village on the outskirts of Harrogate, in Pannal = may bring new people into the area who are in older age groups
How has shifting flows of money and investment led to demographic change in Brick Lane?
Gentrification- there is investment by individuals in property and businesses which will bring in money to the local economy. Some groups are being forced out e.g. the Bangladeshi community who cannot afford property/rent prices whilst more affluent young professionals move in
How has shifting flows of investment led to cultural change in Brick Lane?
A local resident: “it was Bangladeshis that made Brick Lane famous but soon it won’t be Brick Lane anymore if they keep moving out. Businesses in the area have changed e.g. restaurants selling food from different ethnic groups are moving out. Some argue that art and culture are being flattened as the new migrants are only bringing money with them and no art and culture
How have shifting flows of ideas caused cultural change in Harrogate?
Annual StrEAT and family fun festival in valley Gardens- 4-day celebration of some of the best street food from around the world (over 50 traders attend the event). Greek and Istanbul restaurants influence local eating habitats and bring new cuisines to local residents
How have shifting flows of ideas caused cultural change in Brick
Foods- restaurants established by different migrants. The area has successful bagel shops (Jewish culture) and guidebooks say “it is THE place to go for a curry” (Bangladeshi culture)
How has shifting flows of resources caused demographic change in Harrogate
New housing and carehome facilities:
-construction of more low cost housing and has caused the proposed sites e.g. Harlow Carr/ Duchy and Pannal = likely to lead to a younger age profile where the new low cost housing is built e.g. at the top of Harlow Hill in the Duchy Ward- New housing developments will also increase overall population size
- specialist dementia care homes and also many retirement and sheltered housing complexes. In particular, there will be a new dementia village on the outskirts of Harrogate, in Pannal = may bring new people into the area who are in older age groups
What’s an additional example of how shifting flows of ideas and resources has lead to cultural and demographic change?
Ideas such as the use of birth control can flow to new places and affect demographic characteristics e.g. by reducing birth rate and affecting population size. Many of the world’s poorest countries have the lowest usage of birth control and rapid population growth
International organisations such as the __________ have been set up to spread knowledge and ideas about birth control as well as supplying resources to aid birth control e.g. condoms
UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund)
UNFPA also supplies Ethiopia with a variety of modern contraceptives, aiming to increase
The family planning options available- around 1/3 of reproductive health commodities medicines in Ethiopia are being provided through the UNFPA programme known as the UNFPA supplies
What has resulted from UNFPA supplying Ethiopia with a variety of modern contraceptives?
The use of modern family planning methods among married women increased from 8% in 2000 to 36% in 2016 according to a recently survey
What are the demographic changes that occur from shifting flows of resources (contraception)?
Use of birth control will reduce birth rate and population size
What are the cultural changes that occur from shifting flows of resources (contraception)?
The work of the UNFPA is also having cultural impacts. UNFPA supplies Ethiopia with modern contraceptives to increase the family planning options available.UNFPA is also training health care workers to provide counselling including about vasectomies which are rare in Ethiopia- most users of contraceptives are women and in many communities family planning is conceited to be a woman’s issue
How do external forces affect connections?
- external flows cause places to change
- in recent history, flows of people, money, resources and ideas between places have increased
- this is due to ever-changing improvements in transport and communications
- the flows have caused more people to become more strongly connected to each other, and over increasing distances- this is globalisation
How has Harrogate been shaped by its connections in the past?
- original endogenous factors
- arrival of the railway
- national events
How have original endogenous factors shaped Harrogate?
-Harrogate’s original growth was due to endogenous factors e.g spa water- in Georgian era, Harrogate became known as ‘The English Spa’
- in 17th and 18th centuries its ‘chalybete’ waters (containing iron) were a popular health treatment resulting in an influx of wealthy but sick visitors which contributed significantly to the wealth of the town
How has the arrival of the railway shaped Harrogate?
Harrogate’s population grew most significantly after the arrival of the railway = improved transport infrastructure = better links = Harrogate to become connected to other places in Britain = tourists and day trippers began to visit Harrogate in greater numbers; attractions included: valley gardens, the pump rooms, Turkish Baths, Old Swan Hotel and GYS annual event = again widening connections to rest of the country
How have national events shaped Harrogate?
In late 20th century, Harrogate widened its connections even more by holding national events such as political party conferences and international events e.g. 1982 Eurovision Song Contest
How has Harrogate been shaped by its present connections?
- national chains
- Harrogate Borough Council and ‘visit Harrogate’
How have national chains shaped Harrogate?
Harrogate increased its connections with national chains such as Everyman cinema, Gino’s, and most recently (Jan 2018) The Ivy- HOWEVER, Harrogate has been criticised for becoming a ‘clone town’ because of the increase in national chains and there being signs of decline inHarrogate’s CBD with local, independent shops and restaurants being forced to close