8.2 How We Remember: Cues to Improving Memory Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > 8.2 How We Remember: Cues to Improving Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8.2 How We Remember: Cues to Improving Memory Deck (22):
1

encoding

- the process by which we place the things that we experience into memory

2

elaborative encoding

- process new information in ways that make it more relevant or meaningful

3

spacing effect

- the fact that learning is better when the same amount of study is spread out over periods of time than it is when it occurs closer together or at the same time

4

distributed practice

- practice that is spread out over time

5

massed practice

- practice that comes in one block

6

overlearning

- continuing to practice and study even when we think that we have mastered the material

7

retrieveal

- the process of reactivating information that has been stored in memory

8

tip-of-the-tongue phenonmenon

- we are certain that we know something that we are trying to recall but cannot quite come up with it

9

context-dependent learning

- an increase in retrieval when the external situation in which information is learned matches the situation in which it is remembered

10

state-dependent learning

- superior retrieval of memories when the individual is in the same physiological or psychological state as during encoding

11

primacy effect

- a tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented early in a list

12

recency effect

- the tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented later in a list

13

retroactive interference

- learning something new impairs our ability to retrieve information that was learned earlier

14

proactive interference

- earlier learning impairs our ability to encode information that we try to learn later

15

categories

- networks of associated memories that have features in common with each other

16

spreading activation

- occurs when activating one element of a category activates other associated elements

17

prototype

- the member of the category that is most average or typical of the category

18

schemas

- patterns of knowledge in long-term memory that help us organize information

19

long-term potentiation (LTP)

- the strengthening of the synaptic connections between neurons as a result of frequent stimulation

20

amnesia

- a memory disorder that involves the inability to remember information

21

retrograde amnesia

- a memory disorder that produces an inability to retrieve events that occurred before a given time

22

anterograde amnesia

- the inability to transfer information from short-term into long-term memory

Decks in AP Psychology Class (68):