____ of the lateral tract extend directly from the motor cortex to their target neurons in the spinal-cord.
In bulges of the medulla called ____, the lateral tract crosses to the contralateral side of the spinal-cord. (For that reason, the lateral tract is also called the pyramidal tract). It controls movement in peripheral areas, such as the hands and feet.
In some children with ____ ____, the contralateral path fails to mature, and the ipsilateral path remains relatively strong. The resulting competition causes clumsiness.
The medial corticospinal tract includes axons from many parts of the cerebral cortex, not just the primary motor cortex and surrounding areas. It also includes axons from the midbrain tectum, reticular formation, and the ____ ____, a brain area that receives input from the vestibular system.
Axons of the medial tract go to ____ sides of the spinal-cord, not just a contralateral site.
The ____ ____ controls mainly the muscles of the neck, shoulders, and trunk and therefore such movements as walking, turning, bending, standing up, and sitting down.
Note that these movements of the medial tract are necessarily ____, you can move your fingers on just one side, but the movement of your neck or trunk must include both sides.
The ____ tract controls muscles in the lateral parts of the body, such as hands and feet. The ____ track controls muscles in the medial parts of the body, including trunk and neck.
lateral : medial
The cerebellum. People with cerebellar damage do lose ____ and ____, but that description understates the importance of the structure.
balance and coordination
The cerebellum contains more ____ than the rest of the brain combined and an enormous number of synapses.
One effect of _____ damage is trouble with rapid movements that require aim, timing, and alternations of movements.
People with cerebellar damage are normal at ____ motor activity.
____ – ballistic eye movements from one fixation point to another – depend on impulses from the cerebellum and the frontal cortex to the cranial nerves.
Someone with cerebella damage has difficulty ____ the angle and distance of eye movements. The eyes make many short movements until, by trial and error, they eventually find the intended spot.
The symptoms of cerebellar damage resemble those of ____ ____: clumsiness, slurred speech, and inaccurate eye movements.
A police officer testing someone for drunkenness may use a finger-to-nose test or similar test because the ____ is one of the first brain areas that alcohol effects.
The cerebellum is not only a motor structure. The cerebellum responds to sensory stimuli even in the ____ of movement.
Masao Ito (1984) proposed that a key role of the cerebellum is to establish new ____ ____ that enable one to execute a sequence of actions as a whole.
Richard Ivry and his colleagues emphasise the importance of the cerebellum for behaviours that depend on ____ ____ of short intervals.
Any sequence of rapid movements obviously requires ____. Many perceptual and cognitive tasks also require ____.
People who are ____ at one kind of timed movement, such as tapping a rhythm with a finger, tend also to be good at other timed movements.
People with ____ ____ are impaired at all of these tasks but unimpaired at controlling the force of a movement or at judging which tone is louder. The cerebellum as important mainly for tasks that require timing.
The cerebellum also appears critical for certain aspects of ____. Evidently, people with cerebellar damage need longer to shift their ____.
The cerebellum receives input from the spinal-cord, from each of the sensory systems by way of the cranial nerve nuclei, and from the cerebral cortex. That information eventually reaches the ____ ____, the surface of the cerebellum.
The term ____ ____ applies collectively to a group of large subcortical structures in the forebrain.
Included in that basal ganglia are the ____ ____, the ____, and the ____ ____.
caudate nucleus : putamen : globus pallidus
Input comes to the caudate nucleus and putamen, mostly from the ____ ____.
Output from the caudate nucleus and putamen goes to the ____ ____ and from there mainly to the thalamus, which relays it to the cerebral cortex, especially its motor areas and the prefrontal cortex.
Most of the output from the globus pallidus to the thalamus releases ____, an inhibitory transmitter, and neurons in the globus pallidus show much spontaneous activity.
The globus pallidus is constantly inhabiting the ____.
Input from caudate nucleus and the putamen tells the globus pollidus which movements to ____ ____.
With extensive damage to globus pallidus, as in people's ____ ____, the result has decreased inhibition and therefore involuntary, jerky movements.
In effect, the basal ganglia select a movement by ______. This circuit is particularly important for self initiated behaviours.
ceasing to inhibit it
Neurons in the motor cortex adjust their responses as a person or animal _________. At first, movements are slow and inconsistent. As movements become faster, relevant neurons in the motor cortex increase their firing rates.
learns a motor skill
After prolonged training, the movement patterns become more consistent from trial to trial, and so do the patterns of activity in the motor cortex. In engineering terms, the motor cortex increases its __________.
The basal ganglia are critical for learning new ____.
People with basal ganglia damage are impaired at learning motor skills and at converting new movements into smooth, ____ ____.