9 22 Digestion of proteins and fats-Table 1 Flashcards Preview

FOM Quiz 4 > 9 22 Digestion of proteins and fats-Table 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9 22 Digestion of proteins and fats-Table 1 Deck (35):
1

what do parietal cells secrete?

HCL (pH in the stomach); Intrinsic factor

2

what do chief cells release?

they release pepsinogen.

3

what is pepsinogen?

it is the inactive part of pepsin, that is activaated in acid environment.

4

how does pepsin activate?

by cleaving inhibitory peptide and activating in acid

5

what is the first pepsidase in digestion of protein?

pepsin

6

what are the three pancreatic enzymes released for the digestion of protein?

procarboxypetidase; chymotrypsinogen;; trypsinogen

7

how do we activate the pancreatic enzymes

enteropeptidase activates trypsinogen to trypsin. Trypsin activates procarboxypeptidas; and chymotrypsonogen, and itself (trypsinogen)

8

the three activated pancreatic enzymes that go on to digest proteins as they enter the small intestine:

carboxypeptidase; chymotrypsin; trypsin

9

Brief overview of the protien digestion:

protein in the stomach: (combine B12 and Intrinsic factor.) Pepsinogen is activated to pepsin and start to digest the proteins. then IF/B12 and protein out the stomach, HCO3 buffer, and then activated carboxypeptidase, chymmotrypsin, and trypsin digest the protein in the small intestine down to amino acids.

10

where is enteropeptidase?

in the intestinal microvilli

11

what are the Enzymes that are activated by Trypsin?

Trypsinogen; Proelastase; Procarboxypeptidase; chymotrypsinogen; procolipase

12

what is procolipase

the inactive form of colipase that is required for activity of lipase that breaks down fats

13

what is proelastase

protease that breaks down elastic fibers

14

what will digest a lipid from a triacylglycerols to individual lipid chains?

pancreatic lipase

15

briefly describe the absorbtion of proteins into the blood stream

active transport by Na co-transporter into the absorptive cell, transcytosis, facilitated diffusion and then enter capillary via intercellular clefts

16

What are the brush border protiens?

Enteropeptidase; disaccharidases; peptidases;

17

how can block in the pancreatic duct cause pancreatitis?

The proteases of the pancreus can be activated by trypsin and start to break down the proteins fo the pancreus.

18

why would a proton pump inhibitor lead to vitamin B12 deficiency?

perhaps this messes with the parietal cells and the pressence of the intrinsic factor for B12.

19

what is a bile salt

emulsification (like a detergent) to break up the lipids

20

explain the digestion of lipids:

go to the stomach, and then into the small intestine, and the gall bladder dumps in bile salts, emulsification of lipids, procolipase activated by trypsin and becomes colipase that combines with lipase and digest the fat, and micelles get absorbed.

21

what is the result (for transporting the molecule) of the extreme hydrophobicity of lipids

they do not cross the membranes

22

what will cut the back bone of the triglycerides to leave three seperate strands?

Pancreatic lipase.

23

Brief overview of fat digestion

Duodenum: bile salts released from gall bladder and emulsify the fat. lipase and colipase (activated from procolipase by trypsin) break down the lipids, and make little miscelles that get absorbed.

24

what is the bile salt made from?

cholesterol

25

what is a micelles

made of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts. AND FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS.

26

how are miclessles absorbed?

absorbed epithelal of small intestine, then absorbed as chylomicrons into the lacteal of the lymphatic system.

27

the large triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein particles secreted by the intestinal mucosal cells into the lymph

chylomicrons

28

briefly describe the structure of the chylomicrons

inner core of tryiacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters, and fat-soluble vitamins, phospholipid coat, with apoprotein spot and unesterifed cholesterol spots.

29

how do chylomicrons change the blood plasma

make it dark and cloudy, merky looking.

30

what is the destination of sugars, amino acids, and fat in the digestive system?

sugars/amino acids go to the blood (through capillary in the villus of the intestine). Fat go to the lymph. (through the lacteal in the villus of the intestine)

31

what are the fat soluble vitamins?

A,E,D,K

32

What is an omega 3 fatty acid

the first double bond is at the third carbon form the omega end of the lipid (the omega end is at the end of the long carbon chain.)

33

know which is an essential fatty acid

Omega-3s

34

why vitamin E deficient with CF

Vitamin E is fat soluble and CF often attacks the pancreus, therefore we don’t get lipase or colipase, and there are no lipases on the brush border.

35

introduced gluten, and this flattened the cilia of his small intestine.

Celiac disease!