Flashcards in 9. Absolutism in Western Europe: France & Spain, 1589-1715 Deck (30)
Explain Henry IV's story (what family is he?)
1 thing he's most importantly known for?
What was he an example of?
He was a huguenot turned catholic, in order to save French unity ("France is worth a mass"). When he became king as the first Bourbon, though, his Edict of Nantes granted religious toleration.
He was a major example of a politique.
France's tax system in Henry IV's times
inefficient and inequitable. Nobles were exempt. The burden fell to the peasants.
Henry IV's chief minister
What did he do
Duke de Sully
- Improved the efficiency of tax system and improved economy
Who were "nobility of the sword"
Traditional French nobles who inherited their nobility from the family.
Basically a military merit from the old times.
Who were the "nobility of the robe" and why were they created by who?
Because the "nobles of the sword" posed threat to royal power, Henry IV and Sully began selling government offices to create new nobles, known as "robe nobles". These new nobles were often members of prosperous bourgeoisie.
Basically, nobles of the robe: purchased bureaucratic merit
Who ruled after Henry IV and why?
Henry was assassinated in 1610 so his son Louis XIII reigned
How old was Louis XIII when he became second Bourbon monarch?
9 years old
Louis XIII's chief minister
What were Richelieu's goals and was he successful?
- Enhance royal power & weaken nobility
yes, he was successful
What were intendants and how were they used by Richelieu?
-They were officials drawn from the "nobility of the robe"
-To weaken the nobility, Richelieu replaced nobles with intendants who implemented royal orders. This system is known as the INTENDANT SYSTEM
What was Richelieu's international goal?
How did he manage to accomplish it
To limit Hapsburg power.
- By supporting Protestant powers in 30 years' war, he helped defeat the Hapsburgs
King and chief minister after Louis XIII and Richelieu
Louis XIV and Cardinal Mazarin
How old was Louis XIV when he inherited the monarchy?
What bad thing happened because of it?
- 5 years old
- Nobles, sensing royal weakness, led rebellions against royal authority known as the FRONDE to limit the monarchy
Who was Bishop Bossuet and what were his beliefs
- French theorist concerning about right of kings
- Argued that all power comes from God. Royal power was absolute
The most powerful monarch in French history:
Louis XIV. the Sun King
"L'etat, c'est moi"
"I am the State" boasted by Louis XIV
Louis XIV's domestic policies? list
- Increased the power of intendants
- refused to appoint a chief minister
- continued Richelieu's policy of reducing political power of nobility
What did the Versailles Palace symbolize
a visible symbol of Louis XIV's absolute power and greatness
What is the significance of France's cultural dominance?
At these times, French cultures were envied and copied throughout the continent (IMPORTANT!!)
Just like how American stuff are popular around the world
Louis XIV named Jean-Baptiste Colbert as:______
was this guy successful?
controller general of finances
- he successfully raised revenues and economic growth
Colbert's mercantilist policies:
- Expanded manufacturing by abolishing domestic tariffs that inhibited trade
- Protected French products by placing high tariffs on goods coming into the country
- Recognized the importance of colonies as source of raw mats
What motto did Louis XIV believe in?
and what did he do to the edict of nantes
- "one king, one law, one faith"
- Revoked it in 1685. protestant churches were closed and persecuted
Louis XIV's international ambitions
To make France a global power, "universal monarchy
What is the defensive strategy where weaker countries joined together to equal or exceed a powerful country?
Balance of Power
War of the Spanish Succession years?
Why did it happen?
- 1701 - 1713
- Spanish king Charles II died without heir, and handed down the entire empire to Louis XIV's grandson, Philip of Anjou. It upset the balance of power
What did England form in fear of French universal monarchy? with which nations (important)?
the Grand Alliance with Austria, Brandenburg, and Italian duchy of Savoy (duchy means the land belonging to the duke)
End result of War of Spanish Succession
costly struggle that left France battered and weakened. Huge debts.
What treaty ended the Spanish Succession War?
How was the Spanish Succession settled?
- Treaty of Utrecht
- Louis's grandson, Philip V, was allowed to remain king as long as Spain and France were not united
What were the provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht-
for the Duke of Savoy?
for the Elector of Brandenburg?
- Spanish Netherlands(Belgium) became Austrian Netherlands
- Duke of Savoy was recognized king and received Sicily
- recognized as King of Prussia