#9. functional organization of the cerebral cortex Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in #9. functional organization of the cerebral cortex Deck (69):
1

What do the sensory areas do?

-receive sensory information and are involved in perception

2

Define perception

the conscious awareness of a sensation

3

What do the motor areas do?

control the execution of voluntary movement

4

What do the association areas do?

deal with more complex integrative functions.
ie. memory, emotions, reasoning, judgement...

5

What does the primary sensory area do?

-receives sensory information from peripheral sensory receptors
ie. photo receptors in eyes pick up light and send it to the visual area of the brain

6

Where are the sensory association areas?

usually adjacent to the primary sensory areas

7

Wha do the sensory association areas do?

-receive input from the primary sensory areas and other brain areas
-integrate sensory experiences to generate meaningful patterns of recognition and awareness

8

Where is the primary somatosensory area?

-in the post central gyrus
-parietal lobe

9

What does the primary somatosensory area do?

- receives nerve impulses for touch, pressure, vibration, itch, tickle, temperature, pain, proprioception

10

What and where is the sensory homunculus?

-it is a map of the entire body
-it is in the primary somatosensory area
-each point in the area receives impulses from a specific part of the body

11

The size of the areas on the sensory homunculus depends on what?

it depends on the number of receptors in that area of the body.

12

What are the Brodmann's numbers for the primary somatosensory area?

1, 2, 3

13

What does the primary visual area do?

receives visual information and involved in visual perception

14

What is the Brodmann's number for the primary visual area?

17

15

What does the primary auditory area do?

receives auditory information and involved in auditory perception

16

What is the Brodmann's number for the primary auditory area?

41, 42

17

What does the primary gustatory area do?

receives impulses for taste and is involved in gustatory perceptiona nd taste discrimination

18

What is the Brodmann's number for the primary gustatory area?

43

19

What does the primary olfactory area do?

-receives impulses for smell and involved in olfactory

20

Where is the primary olfactory area in the brain?

-medial. deep in the brain
-in fold of lateral cerebral sulcus

21

What is Brodmann's number for the primary olfactory area?

28

22

Where is the primary motor area?

in the precentral gyrus
-frontal lobe

23

What and where is the motor homunculus?

-it is a map of the entire body.
-each region controls voluntary contractions of specific muscles or groups of muscles
-it is in the primary motor area in the pre-central gyrus

24

True or False: in the motor homunculus the areas for skilled complex or delicate movement are smaller but have more axons going to and from.

False. The areas for skilled complex or delicate movements are bigger.

25

What does Broca's speech area do?

from this area the impulses travel to the premotor areas that control speech muscles and to the primary motor areas.

26

Where is Broca's speech area?

in 97% of people it is in the left hemisphere

27

What is Brodmann's number for Broca's speech area?

44, 45

28

What does the somatosensory association area do?

-receives input from the primary somatosensory area, thalamus and other areas
-lets you determine the exact shape and texture of an object by feeling it
-holds memories of past somatic sensory experiences

29

What is Brodmann's number for the somatosensory association area?

5, 7

30

What does the visual association area do?

-receives sensory impulses from the primary visual area and thalamus
-relates present and past visual experiences
-is essential for recognizing and evaluating what is seen

31

What is Brodmann's number for the visual association area?

18, 19

32

What does the facial recognition area do?

-receives sensory impulses from the visual association area
-stores information about faces, allows you to recognize people

33

What is the Brodmann's number for the facial recognition area?

20, 21, 37

34

Is area 20, 21, and 37 more dominant on the right or the left?

the facial recognition area is more dominant on the right

35

What does the auditory association area do?

lets you recognize a particular sound a speech, music or noise

36

What is the Brodmann's number for the auditory association area?

22

37

What does the orbitofrontal cortex do?

-receives sensory impulses from the primary olfactory area
-allows you to identify odors and discriminate among odors

38

What is Brodmann's number for the orbitofrontal cortex?

11

39

Is area 11 more dominant on the left or the right?

the orbitofrontal cortex is more dominant on the right

40

What does Wernicke's area do?

-interprets meaning of speech by recognizing spoken words

41

What is Brodmann's number for Wernicke's area?

22, 39, 40

42

Are areas 22, 39, and 40 more dominant on the right or the left?

Wernicke's area is more dominant on the left

43

What does the common integrative area do?

-receives nerve impulses from the primary sensory areas, thalamus and parts of the brainstem
-integrates sensory interpretations from association areas, allowing the formation of thought based on a variety of sensory inputs
-then, transmits signals to other parts of brain.

44

What is Brodmann's number for the common integrative area?

5, 7, 39, 40

45

What does the prefrontal cortex do?

-has numerous connections with other areas of the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system and cerebellum
-personality, intellect, complex learning abilities, recall of information, initiative, judgment, foresight, reasoning, conscience, intuition, mood, planning for the future, development of abstract ideas....

46

What is Brodmann's number for the prefrontal cortex?

9, 10, 11, 12

47

What does the premotor area do?

-communicates with the primary motor cortex, sensory association areas, basal nuclei and thalamus
-deals with learned motor activities of a complex and sequential nature
-causes specific groups of muscles to contract in a specific sequence
-helps organize skeletal muscle system to do a task. ie kick a ball

48

What is Brodmann's number for the premotor area?

6

49

What does the frontal eye field area do?

voluntary scanning of eyes. ie. reading

50

What is Brodmann's number for the frontal eye field?

8

51

Which hemisphere are the language areas in?

in the left cerebral hemisphere

52

Define aphasia

the inability to use or comprehend words

53

What is damage to Broca's area called?

nonfluent aphasia

54

Define nonfluent aphasia

-inability to properly articulate of form words
-know what they want to say but can't say it

55

What is damage to Wernicke's area, common integrative area or the auditory association area called?

fluent aphasia

56

What happens in fluent aphasia?

-faulty understanding of spoken or written words
-"word salad" - string of words with no meaning

57

What does the left hemisphere thought to influence in a person?

-language - sign, written, spoken
-logic
-reasoning
-numbers
-scientific skills
-math
-analytic thought

58

What is the right hemisphere thought to influence?

-"ego"
-facial recognition
-emotional content of language
-discrimination of smells
-artistic
-generate mental images
-creativity
-art & music
-intuition
-holistic thought

59

How are brain waves created?

-brain waves are generated by neurons close to the brain surface (mainly the cerebral cortex)

60

How is a brain wave detected?

by electrodes (sensors)

61

What are the types of brain waves?

-beta waves
-alpha waves
-theta waves
-delta waves

62

What is happening during beta waves?

the nervous system is active

63

What is the length of beta waves?

14-30 Hz

64

What is the length of alpha waves?

8-13 Hz

65

What is the length of theta waves?

4-7 Hz

66

What is the length of delta waves?

1-5 Hz

67

What is happening during alpha waves

awake but resting with eyes closed

68

What is happening during theta waves?

when experiencing emotional stress. also many disorders of the brain

69

What is happening during delta waves?

-during deep sleep in adults.
-normal in awake infants.