Flashcards in 9.12 Cell Growth, Differentiation, Adaptation 1 and 2 Deck (37):
define labile cells
cells that are continuously dividing and always in the cell cycle
give examples of labile cells
stratified squamous of epithelium, columnar epithelium of GI
define stable cells
quiescent, normally at low replication level but may be stimulated to divide by reaction to injury
give examples of stable cells
hepatocytes, vascular endothelial cells
define permanent cells
non-dividing cells, have permanently left cell cycle and can't undergo mitotic division
give an example of a permanent cell
make new cells with the same cell type you lost:
make new cells with a different cell type (ex: CT and fibrosis)
what is absolutely needed for regeneration?
an intact basement membrane
EGF, VEGF, FGF, TGF-beta, and PDGF are all substrates that react on what category of receptor?
Receptor tyrosine kinases
in a ___________, malignant cells produce VEGF and PDGF, causing proliferation of vascular cells
in ___________________, there is progressive fibrosis of the skin and organs caused by damaged blood vessels releasing TGF-beta and PDGF
define the potential mechanism behind systemic sclerosis
autoimmune --> cytokines --> damaged blood vessels --> release of TGF-beta and PDGF --> fibrosis
in glioblasomas, malignant astrocytes release _____ and ____ in response to hypoxia, causing what?
VEGF and PDGF
proliferation of vascular cells
describe the properties of cytokine receptors?
no inherent tyrosine kinase activity
use janus kinase (JAK) to phosphorylate
ILs and INFs and erythropoietin are examples of what?
when a receptor is activated that does not have inhered tyrosine kinase activity, ___________ are recruited. What do they do?
janus kinases (JAK)
phosphorylate the receptor and some other enzymes
what disease can be associated with cytokine signaling and receptors with non-inherent tyrosine kinase activity? cancer of plasma cells
in multiple myeloma, plasma cell neoplasms cause in increase in ________, stimulating _________ to absorb bone. This can lead to hyper-_________. What pathway is this?
what are 3 important features of the ECM?
1. sequesters water and minerals
2. reservoir of growth factors
3. provides BASEMENT MEMBRANE
in increase in number of cells is called ___________
what can cause hyperplasia?
hormonal changes or increase in functional damand
provide an example of physiological hyperplasia
provide an example of compensatory hyperplasia
losing some of your liver
provide an example of pathologic hyperplasia
hormones causing increase in prostate in older men
in increase in the size of cells is called _________
what can cause hypertrophy of cells?
increased functional demand or hormonal changes
provide an example of physiologic hypertrophy
increase in smooth muscle size of uterus because of pregnancy
provide an example of pathologic hypertrophy
a hypertrophic heart, increase in myocardial volume due to high pressures
the emergence of one differentiated cell type where another type should be is an example of ___________
in metaplasia, the cells look _______.
they look normal
they are just in the wrong location
in Barrett esophagus, the normal ___________ cells of the esophagus are replaced by __________________. . What is this an example of?
intestinal-like columnar epithelium
is metaplasia reversible?
loss of control of normal cell growth that is still potentially reversible is called __________
cells with dysplasia show difference in size and shape, called _________
dysplasia usually follows tissues that have had ___________, but not always