9.12 Cell Growth, Differentiation, Adaptation 1 and 2 Flashcards Preview

Foundations Exam 3 > 9.12 Cell Growth, Differentiation, Adaptation 1 and 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.12 Cell Growth, Differentiation, Adaptation 1 and 2 Deck (37):
1

define labile cells

cells that are continuously dividing and always in the cell cycle

2

give examples of labile cells

stratified squamous of epithelium, columnar epithelium of GI

3

define stable cells

quiescent, normally at low replication level but may be stimulated to divide by reaction to injury

4

give examples of stable cells

hepatocytes, vascular endothelial cells

5

define permanent cells

non-dividing cells, have permanently left cell cycle and can't undergo mitotic division

6

give an example of a permanent cell

CNS neuron

7

make new cells with the same cell type you lost:

regeneration

8

make new cells with a different cell type (ex: CT and fibrosis)

replacement

9

what is absolutely needed for regeneration?

an intact basement membrane

10

EGF, VEGF, FGF, TGF-beta, and PDGF are all substrates that react on what category of receptor?

rTKs
Receptor tyrosine kinases

11

in a ___________, malignant cells produce VEGF and PDGF, causing proliferation of vascular cells

glioblastoma

12

in ___________________, there is progressive fibrosis of the skin and organs caused by damaged blood vessels releasing TGF-beta and PDGF

systemic sclerosis

13

define the potential mechanism behind systemic sclerosis

autoimmune --> cytokines --> damaged blood vessels --> release of TGF-beta and PDGF --> fibrosis

14

in glioblasomas, malignant astrocytes release _____ and ____ in response to hypoxia, causing what?

VEGF and PDGF
proliferation of vascular cells

15

describe the properties of cytokine receptors?

no inherent tyrosine kinase activity
use janus kinase (JAK) to phosphorylate

16

ILs and INFs and erythropoietin are examples of what?

cytokines

17

when a receptor is activated that does not have inhered tyrosine kinase activity, ___________ are recruited. What do they do?

janus kinases (JAK)
phosphorylate the receptor and some other enzymes

18

what disease can be associated with cytokine signaling and receptors with non-inherent tyrosine kinase activity? cancer of plasma cells

multiple myeloma

19

in multiple myeloma, plasma cell neoplasms cause in increase in ________, stimulating _________ to absorb bone. This can lead to hyper-_________. What pathway is this?

IL-6
osteoclasts
hyper-calcemia
JAK/STAT

20

what are 3 important features of the ECM?

1. sequesters water and minerals
2. reservoir of growth factors
3. provides BASEMENT MEMBRANE

21

in increase in number of cells is called ___________

hyperplasia

22

what can cause hyperplasia?

hormonal changes or increase in functional damand

23

provide an example of physiological hyperplasia

period

24

provide an example of compensatory hyperplasia

losing some of your liver

25

provide an example of pathologic hyperplasia

hormones causing increase in prostate in older men

26

in increase in the size of cells is called _________

hypertrophy

27

what can cause hypertrophy of cells?

increased functional demand or hormonal changes

28

provide an example of physiologic hypertrophy

increase in smooth muscle size of uterus because of pregnancy

29

provide an example of pathologic hypertrophy

a hypertrophic heart, increase in myocardial volume due to high pressures

30

the emergence of one differentiated cell type where another type should be is an example of ___________

metaplasia

31

in metaplasia, the cells look _______.

they look normal
they are just in the wrong location

32

in Barrett esophagus, the normal ___________ cells of the esophagus are replaced by __________________. . What is this an example of?

squamous epithelium
intestinal-like columnar epithelium
metaplasia

33

is metaplasia reversible?

yes, potentially

34

loss of control of normal cell growth that is still potentially reversible is called __________

dysplasia

35

cells with dysplasia show difference in size and shape, called _________

pleomorphism

36

dysplasia usually follows tissues that have had ___________, but not always

metaplasia

37

if you see a tissue with incorrect architecture, pleomorphism, mitotic figures, increased chromosome density, but is still reversible.... this is _________

dysplasia