Flashcards in 9.2: Head Trauma And Acute Intracranial Events Deck (20):
What is concussion?
Head injury with a temporary loss of brain function (due to axonal injury which impairs neurotransmission and reduces cerebral blood flow)
What are the clinical signs indicating a basilar skull fracture?
Bump on head
Where does blood collect in an extradural haemorrhage?
Between the inner surface of the skull and the periosteal layer of the dura mater
Extradural haemorrhage is most often due to trauma where?
At the pterion, severing the middle meningeal artery
What shape will an extradural haemorrhage appear on CT?
Which type of brain haemorrhage will cause the px to present with a lucid interval?
(Loss of consciousness immediately, then transient recovery. Then decline in consciousness as haematoma enlarged and RICP)
Which type of brain haemorrhage is banana shaped on CT?
Where does the blood collect in a subdural haemorrhage?
Between the meningeal dura mater and arachnoid mater
Will acute brain bleeds be hypo or hyper dence on CT?
But overtime will become more hypodense (darker)
What type of brain haemorrhage can be seen chronically in elderly?
E.g. cerebral atrophy increases forces on cortical bridging veins causing them to shear
Where does blood collect in a subarachnoid haemorrhage?
Between the arachnoid and Pia mater
What type of brain haemorrhage can occur due a ruptured berry aneurysm?
How will a px with a subarachnoid haemorrhage present?
Sudden onset thunderclap headache
Loss of consciousness
What a some risk factors for berry aneurysms?
High alcohol consumption
CT disorder e.g. Marfans, Ehlers Danlos
What will a lumbar puncture show for a subarachnoid haemorrhage?
How will an extradural haemorrhage appear on CT?
Hyperdense biconvex bleed
Small ventricles (compressed)
How can an extradural haemorrhage be treated?
If small bleed, observe
If large bleed, craniotomy and clot removal
Is a subdural haemorrhage venous or arterial?
Venous (due to shearing of cortical bridging veins)
Is an extradural haemorrhage venous or arterial?