9.2: Head Trauma And Acute Intracranial Events Flashcards Preview

Semester 5 > 9.2: Head Trauma And Acute Intracranial Events > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.2: Head Trauma And Acute Intracranial Events Deck (20):
1

What is concussion?

Head injury with a temporary loss of brain function (due to axonal injury which impairs neurotransmission and reduces cerebral blood flow)

2

What are the clinical signs indicating a basilar skull fracture?

Raccoon eyes
CSF rhinorrhoea
CSF ottorhoea
Battles sign
Haemotypanum
Bump on head

3

Where does blood collect in an extradural haemorrhage?

Between the inner surface of the skull and the periosteal layer of the dura mater

4

Extradural haemorrhage is most often due to trauma where?

At the pterion, severing the middle meningeal artery

5

What shape will an extradural haemorrhage appear on CT?

Lemon

6

Which type of brain haemorrhage will cause the px to present with a lucid interval?

Extradural haemorrhage

(Loss of consciousness immediately, then transient recovery. Then decline in consciousness as haematoma enlarged and RICP)

7

Which type of brain haemorrhage is banana shaped on CT?

Subdural haemorrhage

8

Where does the blood collect in a subdural haemorrhage?

Between the meningeal dura mater and arachnoid mater

9

Will acute brain bleeds be hypo or hyper dence on CT?

Hyperdense
But overtime will become more hypodense (darker)

10

What type of brain haemorrhage can be seen chronically in elderly?

Subdural

E.g. cerebral atrophy increases forces on cortical bridging veins causing them to shear

11

Where does blood collect in a subarachnoid haemorrhage?

Between the arachnoid and Pia mater

12

What type of brain haemorrhage can occur due a ruptured berry aneurysm?

Subarachnoid haemorrhage

13

How will a px with a subarachnoid haemorrhage present?

Sudden onset thunderclap headache
Nausea
Vomiting
Loss of consciousness
Fever

14

What a some risk factors for berry aneurysms?

HTN
Family hx
High alcohol consumption
CT disorder e.g. Marfans, Ehlers Danlos

15

What will a lumbar puncture show for a subarachnoid haemorrhage?

RBC presence

16

How will an extradural haemorrhage appear on CT?

Hyperdense biconvex bleed
Midline shift
Small ventricles (compressed)

17

How can an extradural haemorrhage be treated?

If small bleed, observe
If large bleed, craniotomy and clot removal

18

Is a subdural haemorrhage venous or arterial?

Venous (due to shearing of cortical bridging veins)

19

Is an extradural haemorrhage venous or arterial?

Arterial (MMA)

20

Do most berry aneurysms occur in the anterior or posterior circulation of the circle of Willis?

Anterior