9.3 | Biological, Environmental, and Behavioural Influences on Intelligence Flashcards Preview

🚫 PSY100H1: Introduction to Psychology (Winter 2016) with J. Vervaeke > 9.3 | Biological, Environmental, and Behavioural Influences on Intelligence > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.3 | Biological, Environmental, and Behavioural Influences on Intelligence Deck (11):
1

Biological Influences

  • genes do play a role in intelligence
  • genes can also play an indirect role by influencing how each individual reacts to their environment

2

Behavioural Genomics

  • behavioural genomics: technique that examines how specific genes interact with the environment to influence behaviours, including those related to environment

3

Gene Knockout (KO) Studies

  • gene knockout (KO) studies: involve removing a specific gene and comparing the characteristics of animals with and without the genes (mostly done on rats)

4

Transgenic Animal

  • transgenic animal: an animal that receives a gene rather than have one taken away

5

"Doogie Mice"

  • doogie mice: mice with altered NR2B genes learned significantly faster and had better memories than other mice

6

Environmental Influences

birth order

  • first-born children on average scored 3 and 4 points higher than second-born and third-born respectively
  • likely due to first-borns "tutoring" their younger siblings

socioeconomic status

  • children growing up in wealthier homes tend to have higher IQs
  • kids in wealthier families are often exposed to more vocabulary, are closer to their family and are often more supported in their studies than poorer families

nutrition, stress, and education also play a factor

  • children with a more health-conscious diet had higher IQ scores than kids with a "poorer" diet
  • eating foods low in saturated fats and rich in omega-3 fats, whole grains, and fruits and veggies are your smartest bets
  • people living in poverty are exposed to higher stress which relates to poorer cognitive functions
  • education (obviously) plays a role in IQ

7

Flynn Effect

  • Flynn effect: refers to the steady population increases in intelligence scores over time
  • estimates that IQ scores increase by 1 every three years

8

Behavioural Influences

  • training your brain to be more intelligent

9

Brain Training Programs

  • designed to improve working memory and other cognitive skills

10

Nootropic Substances

  • nootropic substances: substances that are believed to beneficially affect intelligence
  • nootropics can work through many different mechanisms, from increasing overall arousal and alertness, to changing the availability of certain neurotransmitters, to stimulating nerve growth in the brain
  • long-term effects are not completely understood and side effects do exist

11

Meditation

  • has been shown to improve working memory and reduce stress
  • helps people control their attention and emotional reactions by increasing the thickness and density of the white matter pathways in our brain

Decks in 🚫 PSY100H1: Introduction to Psychology (Winter 2016) with J. Vervaeke Class (50):