9B: Demographic characteristics and processes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9B: Demographic characteristics and processes Deck (22):
1

Demographics

The statistics of populations and are the mathematical applications of sociology

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What are demographic categories?

Age, Gender, Race & Ethnicity, Sexual Orientation, Immigration Status

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Race

A social construct based on phenotypic differences between groups of people

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Ethnicity

A social construct which sorts people by cultural factors

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Symbolic Ethnicity

A specific connection to ones ethnicity in which ethnic symbols and identity remain important even when ethnic identity does not play a significant role in everyday life

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Gender

Range of masculinity and femininity characteristics in a person

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Immigration Status

The movement of people from one country to another

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Demographic Shifts

Changes in the makeup of a population over time

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Fertility Rate

Average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime in a population

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Mortality Rate

Number of deaths in a population per unit time

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Demographic Transition

A model that describes population change over time; change in birth and death rates in a country

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What are the stages of Demographic Transition?

1. Preindustrial Society
2. Urbanization
3. Mature Industrial Age
4. Post Industrial Society

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Preindustrial Society

High birth and death rates; slow population growth

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Urbanization

Improvement in healthcare, nutrition, sanitation and wages; drop in death rate

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Mature Industrial Age

Improvements in contraception, women's rights and a shift from agricultural to an industrial economy causes birth rates to drop

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Postindustrial Society

Birth and death rates are low

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Malthusian Theory

Focus on how the exponential growth of a population can outpace growth of the food supply and lead to social degradation and disorder

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Fertility

Ability to reproduce

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Migration

Change of residence by an individual or group

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Mortality

Frequency of death in a population, influence population size

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Social Movements

Groups of people that gather to support a certain social/political goal and value

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Globalization

The process of integrating the global economy with free trade and the tapping of foreign markets; decreases in geographical constraints on social and cultural exchanges