what is the recommended acclimation period for rodents?
what class of anesthetic are ketamine and tiletamine in?
effects produced by ketamine
a degree of analgesia and immobility without muscle relaxation, adequate for restraint but not for anesthesia
what class of anesthetic are barbituates (sodium pentobarbital) in?
effects produced by barbiturates?
minimal analgesic effect, affect consciousness, dose related respiratory and cardiovascular depression, decreased cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure
mechanism and classification of Inactin
barbituate, sedative hypnotic
uses of Inactin
long duration of anesthesia, 3hrs or more in the rat
considerations for Propofol
1) alkylphenol derivative 2) respiratory and cardiovascular depression 3) resembles thiopental 4) rapid recovery
another name for Avertin
considerations for the use of Avertin
short surgical procedures give IP but degradation products are irritants and toxic so may be recommended for terminal procedures only but has been used in transgenic mouse production narrow safety margin- respiratory and circulatory depression, generally unpredictable
combination of potent opioids and butyrophenone tranquilizers
effects of alpha-chloralose
minimal analgesia, not recommended for painful manipulations, used in studies of long duration while preserving autonomic reflexes, not suitable for survival procedures due to rough induction, prolonged recovery and seizures
uses for chloral hydrate
sedative hypnotic, medium duration light anesthesia with minimal effects on cardiovascular function or reflexes, associated with peritonitis and adynamic ileus, carcinogenic
properties of urethane
(aka ethyl carbamate) greater analgesia, prolonged stable anesthesia in rats, liver and pulmonary damage and carcinogenic, not suitable for recovery anesthesia
effects of metomidate and etomidate
rapid loss of consciousness, minimal analgesia, good cardiovascular stability, bad in that it suppresses the adrenocortical function of some species
sevoflurane+rats+soda lime= ?
compound A- nephrotoxic
receptor for Buprenorphine?
partial mu agonist
example of alpha2 agonists
side effects of alpha2 agonists
hyperglycemia, bradycardia, vasoconstriction, hypothermia
side effects of additional dosing of alpha2 agonists
bradycardia and cardiac arrest
reversal for alpha2 agonists
examples of benzodiazepines
diazepam and midazolam
effects of benzodiazepines
anxiolysis, sedation, and muscle relaxation, not analgesic
reversal of benzodiazepines
what form of post op care has been shown to significantly increase rates of pregnancy and fetal implantation?
supplemental heat overnight
what are the considerations of anesthetics for mouse fetal surgery and why?
isoflurane causes uterine relaxation alpha2 agonists reduce uterine blood flow and increase uterine contractility
effects of isoflurane anesthesia
1) cardio and neuro protective 2) little to no GI and liver 3) mixed on the lungs (can cause cilliary disfunction) 4) leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia in C3H/HeN mice 5) hypogylcemia and metabolic acidosis in neonatal mice
effects of halothane anesthesia
1) most extensive effects on cardiopulmonary system 2) potent bronchodilator 3) neuroprotective 4) sustained elevation in cortisterone for up to 24 hours
effects of sevoflurane anesthesia
1) cardioprotective and neuroprotective (brain not spinal cord) 2) does not affect tracheal epilethial cell cilliary function 3) nephrotoxic for rats (compound A)
effects of desflurane anesthesia
1) quick recovery 2) neuroprotective 3) cardioprotective (even during and after infarct, potential treatment)