A &A (BBCH24 and A&ABB) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A &A (BBCH24 and A&ABB) Deck (122)
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1

what is the recommended acclimation period for rodents?

24-72hrs

2

what class of anesthetic are ketamine and tiletamine in?

dissociative

3

effects produced by ketamine

a degree of analgesia and immobility without muscle relaxation, adequate for restraint but not for anesthesia

4

what class of anesthetic are barbituates (sodium pentobarbital) in?

sedative hypnotics

5

effects produced by barbiturates?

minimal analgesic effect, affect consciousness, dose related respiratory and cardiovascular depression, decreased cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure

6

mechanism and classification of Inactin

barbituate, sedative hypnotic

7

uses of Inactin

long duration of anesthesia, 3hrs or more in the rat

8

considerations for Propofol

1) alkylphenol derivative 2) respiratory and cardiovascular depression 3) resembles thiopental 4) rapid recovery

9

another name for Avertin

Tribromoethanol

10

considerations for the use of Avertin

short surgical procedures give IP but degradation products are irritants and toxic so may be recommended for terminal procedures only but has been used in transgenic mouse production narrow safety margin- respiratory and circulatory depression, generally unpredictable

11

describe neuroleptics

combination of potent opioids and butyrophenone tranquilizers

12

effects of alpha-chloralose

minimal analgesia, not recommended for painful manipulations, used in studies of long duration while preserving autonomic reflexes, not suitable for survival procedures due to rough induction, prolonged recovery and seizures

13

uses for chloral hydrate

sedative hypnotic, medium duration light anesthesia with minimal effects on cardiovascular function or reflexes, associated with peritonitis and adynamic ileus, carcinogenic

14

properties of urethane

(aka ethyl carbamate) greater analgesia, prolonged stable anesthesia in rats, liver and pulmonary damage and carcinogenic, not suitable for recovery anesthesia

15

effects of metomidate and etomidate

rapid loss of consciousness, minimal analgesia, good cardiovascular stability, bad in that it suppresses the adrenocortical function of some species

16

sevoflurane+rats+soda lime= ?

compound A- nephrotoxic

17

receptor for Buprenorphine?

partial mu agonist

18

example of alpha2 agonists

xylazine, dexmedetomidine

19

side effects of alpha2 agonists

hyperglycemia, bradycardia, vasoconstriction, hypothermia

20

side effects of additional dosing of alpha2 agonists

bradycardia and cardiac arrest

21

reversal for alpha2 agonists

atipamezole

22

examples of benzodiazepines

diazepam and midazolam

23

effects of benzodiazepines

anxiolysis, sedation, and muscle relaxation, not analgesic

24

reversal of benzodiazepines

flumazenil

25

what form of post op care has been shown to significantly increase rates of pregnancy and fetal implantation?

supplemental heat overnight

26

what are the considerations of anesthetics for mouse fetal surgery and why?

isoflurane causes uterine relaxation alpha2 agonists reduce uterine blood flow and increase uterine contractility

27

effects of isoflurane anesthesia

1) cardio and neuro protective 2) little to no GI and liver 3) mixed on the lungs (can cause cilliary disfunction) 4) leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia in C3H/HeN mice 5) hypogylcemia and metabolic acidosis in neonatal mice

28

effects of halothane anesthesia

1) most extensive effects on cardiopulmonary system 2) potent bronchodilator 3) neuroprotective 4) sustained elevation in cortisterone for up to 24 hours

29

effects of sevoflurane anesthesia

1) cardioprotective and neuroprotective (brain not spinal cord) 2) does not affect tracheal epilethial cell cilliary function 3) nephrotoxic for rats (compound A)

30

effects of desflurane anesthesia

1) quick recovery 2) neuroprotective 3) cardioprotective (even during and after infarct, potential treatment)

31

effects of methoxyflurane

1) low concentration at room temp, most often used in a bell jar set up 2) profound effect on hormone release (HPA axis, ACTH and corticosterone release)

32

effects of enflurane

1) lower margin of safety, apenic index is lower than MAC 2) epileptogenic

33

which anesthetic is thought to be responsible for causing ocular lesions in rats

ketamine/ xylazine

34

physiologic effects of ketamine/diazepam in rodents

minimal cardiovascular and respiratory effects poor muscle relaxation

35

physiologic effects of pentobarbital in rodents

significant cardiovascular depression in mice hypotension and uncompensated respiratory acidosis in rats

36

effects of Thiopental in rodents

ultrashort acting barbiturate induction agent administered IV irritant, not advisable for survival procedures

37

physiologic effects of Telazol in rodents

very narrow safety margin

38

mechanism of action of phenothiazine tranquilizers

reduce the animals reaction to handling or pain via sedation and CNS depression, no analgesia, additive positive effect with other anesthetics

39

effects of morphine in hamsters

analgesia without CNS or respiratory depression

40

effects of morphine on intracranial pressure

increases ICP

41

which NSAIDS do not work via the COX 1 or 2 pathway?

Acetaminophen and dipyrone

42

what is the most safe anesthetic choice for neonatal rodents?

inhalents

43

what is the second most safe anesthetic choice for neonatal rodents?

hypothermia can be used in altricial rodents up to 7 days of age

44

side effect of telazol in rabbits?

nephrotoxicity

45

what are the traditional reflexes used to monitor anesthetic depth in rabbits

righting palpebral corneal pedal withdrawl pinna

46

which reflex is the most accurate measure of depth of anesthesia in rabbits

pinna, pedal withdrawl, corneal, palpebral

47

what is the recommended fasting for rabbits weighing under 3kg?

not more than 12 hours

48

what are some signs of the hypnotzed state in rabbits?

miosis analgesia increased depth of respiration reduced respiratory rate, heart rate, and BP

49

importance of NSAIDS in ferrets

deficient in the glucoronidation pathway, may manifest signs of toxicity

50

up to what age can hypothermia be used to induce anestheisa in neonatal ferrets

5 days old

51

which inhalent anesthetic has been implicated in causing malignant hyperthermia

halothane

52

what cardiovascular defects are swine known to be predisposed to?

ventral septal defect patent foramen ovale

53

cardiovascular effects of telazol and xylazine in pigs

cardiopressive in swine

54

cardiovascular effects of ketamine/medetomidine and ketamine/midazolam in swine

protect against arrhythmias and provide stable hemodynamics in swine

55

respiratory effects of barbiturates in swine

potent respiratory depressant in swine

56

concerns about anticholinergics in small ruminants?

do not consistently reduce salivary secreations except at high doses and only reduces the aqueous portion-making them thicker, short duration of action

57

concerns about xylazine in ruminants

10-20 times more potent. goats>cattle>sheep

58

concerns with diazepam in small ruminants?

absorbed poorly following IM injection

59

describe how to perform a posterior epidural block in ruminants and when it would be used?

site of injection is the sacrococcygeal or first intercoccygeal space. used to provide anesthesia to the perineum or tail of standing cattle

60

describe how to perform an anterior epidural block in ruminants and when it would be used?

lumbosacral space. provides anesthesia to the caudal abdomen and useful for abdominal procedures, effects the motor and sensory block of the pelvic limbs so the animal is unable to stand

61

name the two ways to perform a paravertebral block

proximal block and distal block

62

describe how to perform a proximal paravertebral block

needle is inserted vertically about 5 cm lateral to the dorsal spinus process until it strikes bone, then walked off the rim and inject into the intertransverse ligament

63

describe how to perform a distal paravertebral block

injection is started at the tip of the transverse process and deposited as the needle is advanced toward the spine

64

list three anatomic considerations in regards to anesthesia in swine

1) highly susceptible to ventricular arrhythmias 2) fragile pulmonary tissue which may be damaged by over-inflation with mechanical respirators, 3) left hemizygous vein which drains the intercostal vessels into the coronary sinus

65

describe the unique receptors for breathing regulation found in birds

intrapulmonary chemoreceptors that are inhibited by high lung PCO2 excited by low lung PCO2 and provide phasic feedback for the control of the rate and depth of breathing

66

effects of diazepam in birds

excellent muscle relaxant duration of action is short and recovery is NOT prolonged

67

effects of xylazine in birds

profound cardiopulmonary effects including second degree heart block, bradyarrhythmias

68

describe the opioid receptors found in birds

they have greater presence of kappa receptor, located in the forebrain, therefore butorphanol provides effective analgesia over morphine

69

give some examples of thermal acute pain models

tail flick

tail withdrawl

hot plate

paw withdrawl

70

give some examples of mechanical acute pain models

tail-clip

von Frey Filament

71

give some examples of chemical acute pain models

formalin

abdominal constriction

72

what are some advantages of the tail flick acute pain assay

speed and ease of use

73

what are some disadvantages of disadvantages of the tail flick assay

low clinical relevance

74

what are some advantages of the tail withdrawl assay

no effect of repeated assay

75

what are some disadvantages of the tail withdrawl assay

requires restraint

76

what are some advantages of the hot plate assay

speed and ease of use no restraint required

77

what are some disadvantages of the hot plate assay

complex behaviors repeated testing effects

78

what are some advantages of the paw withdrawl assay

no restraint required can test contralateral hindpaw (allows for independent testing of both sides of the body) no effect of repeated testing

79

what are some disadvantages of the paw withdrawl assay

low clinical relevance long habituation time

80

what are some advantages of the von Frey filament assay

used in humans

81

what are some disadvantages of the von Frey filament assay

long habituation time hard to standardize across labs

82

what are some examples of common chronic pain assays

complete freunds adjuvant

chronic constriction injury

partial sciatic nerve ligation

spinal nerve ligation

spared nerve injury

Vincristine,

paclitaxel

83

define hyperalgesia

increased response to noxious stimuli

84

define allodynia

response to normally non-noxious stimuli

85

what is the most common chemical used for abdominal constriction test

glacial acetic acid

86

what does IASP stand for?

international association for the study of pain

87

mechanism of action of barbiturates and propofol?

decrease the rate of dissociation of GABA from its receptor

88

mechanism of action of benzodiazepines?

enhance the affinity of the receptors for GABA

89

how are barbiturates metabolized?

by the cytochrome P450 pathway in liver, thus tolerance may be seen with repeated dosing

90

another name for Inactin

thiobutabarbital, no longer available in pharmaceutical grade

91

immune system effects of thiopental

inhibits cell mediated immunity, strong anti-inflammatory effect

92

in which species is propofol the least effective?

rabbits

93

what anesthetic agent is considered ineffective in rabbits and results in both short periods of anesthesia and death?

thiobutabarbital

94

anesthetic class of Alphaxalone

steroid anesthetic

95

physiologic effects of alphaxalone

rapid induction of short term anesthesia

rapid recovery

wide safety margin

minimal accumulation with repeated dose

Cremophor resulted in histamine release and its removal from the market

96

effects of benzodiazepines

marked sedation, anxiolytic, spinal cord mediated muscle relaxant, awareness persists, not analgesic, minimal cardiovascular and mild respiratory effects

97

mechanism of action for Ketamine

NMDA antagonist, binds to a receptor in the NMDA channel and prevents further ion flux, thus inhibiting glutamate action of the channel in a noncompetitive manner

98

what anesthetic agent are swine resistant to?

xylazine and all other alpha 2 agonists

99

what reversal agent is known to increase sexual activity in rats and monkeys?

atipamezole, other side effects are increases pain-related responses by blocking noradrenergic feedback inhibition of pain. beneficial effects on alertness , selective attention, planning, learning and recall

100

what is the proposed mechanism of action of inhalation anesthetics

enhancement of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA

101

where are the Mu opioid receptors located

cerebral cortex, thalamus, periaqueductal gray

102

where are the delta opioid receptors located

frontal cortex limbic system, olfactory tubercule

103

where are the kappa opioid receptors located

spinal cord

104

mechanism of action of Pentazocine

partial agonist of mu receptor(may be weak antagonist) and powerful k receptor agonist

105

mechanism of action of buprenorphine

partial mu agonist and k antagonist

106

mechanism of action of butorphanol

mu antagonist, k agonist

107

what is the differentiating feature of an A circuit?

fresh gas comes in at end of circuit instead of near ET tube connection

108

what is the differentiating feature of a D circuit?

rebreating bag is at the end of circuit, exhaust and pop off valve just before bag

109

what is the differentiating feature of an E circuit?

no rebreating bag

110

what is the differentiating feature of an F circuit?

exhaust and pop off are through the rebreathing bag

111

what is another name for the D circut?

a Baine system

112

name the blade

Phillips

113

name the blade

Robertshaw

114

name the blade

modified miller

115

name the blade

wisconsin

116

name the blade

macintosh

117

name the blade

Choi double-angle blade

 

118

What are the NIOSH recomendations for halogenated anesthetic gasses?

should not exceed 2ppm ceiling concentrations over a period of no greater than 1 hour

119

what is the usual method of obtaining time weighted average sampling of halogenated anesthetic gasses?

active or passive dosimetry

120

how often does OSHA recommend air monitoring be conducted for waste anesthetic gasses?

every 6 months

121

how long should permanent medical records of employees be kept?

duration of employment + 20 years

122

what injectable anesthetics have an effect at the GABA receptor?

barbiturates

chloral hydrate

alpha-chloralose

tribromoethanol

propofol, metomidate, etomidate

benzodiazepines