what is the recommended acclimation period for rodents?
what class of anesthetic are ketamine and tiletamine in?
effects produced by ketamine
a degree of analgesia and immobility without muscle relaxation, adequate for restraint but not for anesthesia
what class of anesthetic are barbituates (sodium pentobarbital) in?
effects produced by barbiturates?
minimal analgesic effect, affect consciousness, dose related respiratory and cardiovascular depression, decreased cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure
mechanism and classification of Inactin
barbituate, sedative hypnotic
uses of Inactin
long duration of anesthesia, 3hrs or more in the rat
considerations for Propofol
1) alkylphenol derivative 2) respiratory and cardiovascular depression 3) resembles thiopental 4) rapid recovery
another name for Avertin
considerations for the use of Avertin
short surgical procedures give IP but degradation products are irritants and toxic so may be recommended for terminal procedures only but has been used in transgenic mouse production narrow safety margin- respiratory and circulatory depression, generally unpredictable
combination of potent opioids and butyrophenone tranquilizers
effects of alpha-chloralose
minimal analgesia, not recommended for painful manipulations, used in studies of long duration while preserving autonomic reflexes, not suitable for survival procedures due to rough induction, prolonged recovery and seizures
uses for chloral hydrate
sedative hypnotic, medium duration light anesthesia with minimal effects on cardiovascular function or reflexes, associated with peritonitis and adynamic ileus, carcinogenic
properties of urethane
(aka ethyl carbamate) greater analgesia, prolonged stable anesthesia in rats, liver and pulmonary damage and carcinogenic, not suitable for recovery anesthesia
effects of metomidate and etomidate
rapid loss of consciousness, minimal analgesia, good cardiovascular stability, bad in that it suppresses the adrenocortical function of some species
sevoflurane+rats+soda lime= ?
compound A- nephrotoxic
receptor for Buprenorphine?
partial mu agonist
example of alpha2 agonists
side effects of alpha2 agonists
hyperglycemia, bradycardia, vasoconstriction, hypothermia
side effects of additional dosing of alpha2 agonists
bradycardia and cardiac arrest
reversal for alpha2 agonists
examples of benzodiazepines
diazepam and midazolam
effects of benzodiazepines
anxiolysis, sedation, and muscle relaxation, not analgesic
reversal of benzodiazepines
what form of post op care has been shown to significantly increase rates of pregnancy and fetal implantation?
supplemental heat overnight
what are the considerations of anesthetics for mouse fetal surgery and why?
isoflurane causes uterine relaxation alpha2 agonists reduce uterine blood flow and increase uterine contractility
effects of isoflurane anesthesia
1) cardio and neuro protective 2) little to no GI and liver 3) mixed on the lungs (can cause cilliary disfunction) 4) leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia in C3H/HeN mice 5) hypogylcemia and metabolic acidosis in neonatal mice
effects of halothane anesthesia
1) most extensive effects on cardiopulmonary system 2) potent bronchodilator 3) neuroprotective 4) sustained elevation in cortisterone for up to 24 hours
effects of sevoflurane anesthesia
1) cardioprotective and neuroprotective (brain not spinal cord) 2) does not affect tracheal epilethial cell cilliary function 3) nephrotoxic for rats (compound A)
effects of desflurane anesthesia
1) quick recovery 2) neuroprotective 3) cardioprotective (even during and after infarct, potential treatment)
effects of methoxyflurane
1) low concentration at room temp, most often used in a bell jar set up 2) profound effect on hormone release (HPA axis, ACTH and corticosterone release)
effects of enflurane
1) lower margin of safety, apenic index is lower than MAC 2) epileptogenic
which anesthetic is thought to be responsible for causing ocular lesions in rats
physiologic effects of ketamine/diazepam in rodents
minimal cardiovascular and respiratory effects poor muscle relaxation
physiologic effects of pentobarbital in rodents
significant cardiovascular depression in mice hypotension and uncompensated respiratory acidosis in rats
effects of Thiopental in rodents
ultrashort acting barbiturate induction agent administered IV irritant, not advisable for survival procedures
physiologic effects of Telazol in rodents
very narrow safety margin
mechanism of action of phenothiazine tranquilizers
reduce the animals reaction to handling or pain via sedation and CNS depression, no analgesia, additive positive effect with other anesthetics
effects of morphine in hamsters
analgesia without CNS or respiratory depression
effects of morphine on intracranial pressure
which NSAIDS do not work via the COX 1 or 2 pathway?
Acetaminophen and dipyrone
what is the most safe anesthetic choice for neonatal rodents?
what is the second most safe anesthetic choice for neonatal rodents?
hypothermia can be used in altricial rodents up to 7 days of age
side effect of telazol in rabbits?
what are the traditional reflexes used to monitor anesthetic depth in rabbits
righting palpebral corneal pedal withdrawl pinna
which reflex is the most accurate measure of depth of anesthesia in rabbits
pinna, pedal withdrawl, corneal, palpebral
what is the recommended fasting for rabbits weighing under 3kg?
not more than 12 hours
what are some signs of the hypnotzed state in rabbits?
miosis analgesia increased depth of respiration reduced respiratory rate, heart rate, and BP
importance of NSAIDS in ferrets
deficient in the glucoronidation pathway, may manifest signs of toxicity
up to what age can hypothermia be used to induce anestheisa in neonatal ferrets
5 days old
which inhalent anesthetic has been implicated in causing malignant hyperthermia
what cardiovascular defects are swine known to be predisposed to?
ventral septal defect patent foramen ovale
cardiovascular effects of telazol and xylazine in pigs
cardiopressive in swine
cardiovascular effects of ketamine/medetomidine and ketamine/midazolam in swine
protect against arrhythmias and provide stable hemodynamics in swine
respiratory effects of barbiturates in swine
potent respiratory depressant in swine
concerns about anticholinergics in small ruminants?
do not consistently reduce salivary secreations except at high doses and only reduces the aqueous portion-making them thicker, short duration of action
concerns about xylazine in ruminants
10-20 times more potent. goats>cattle>sheep
concerns with diazepam in small ruminants?
absorbed poorly following IM injection
describe how to perform a posterior epidural block in ruminants and when it would be used?
site of injection is the sacrococcygeal or first intercoccygeal space. used to provide anesthesia to the perineum or tail of standing cattle
describe how to perform an anterior epidural block in ruminants and when it would be used?
lumbosacral space. provides anesthesia to the caudal abdomen and useful for abdominal procedures, effects the motor and sensory block of the pelvic limbs so the animal is unable to stand
name the two ways to perform a paravertebral block
proximal block and distal block
describe how to perform a proximal paravertebral block
needle is inserted vertically about 5 cm lateral to the dorsal spinus process until it strikes bone, then walked off the rim and inject into the intertransverse ligament
describe how to perform a distal paravertebral block
injection is started at the tip of the transverse process and deposited as the needle is advanced toward the spine
list three anatomic considerations in regards to anesthesia in swine
1) highly susceptible to ventricular arrhythmias 2) fragile pulmonary tissue which may be damaged by over-inflation with mechanical respirators, 3) left hemizygous vein which drains the intercostal vessels into the coronary sinus
describe the unique receptors for breathing regulation found in birds
intrapulmonary chemoreceptors that are inhibited by high lung PCO2 excited by low lung PCO2 and provide phasic feedback for the control of the rate and depth of breathing
effects of diazepam in birds
excellent muscle relaxant duration of action is short and recovery is NOT prolonged
effects of xylazine in birds
profound cardiopulmonary effects including second degree heart block, bradyarrhythmias
describe the opioid receptors found in birds
they have greater presence of kappa receptor, located in the forebrain, therefore butorphanol provides effective analgesia over morphine
give some examples of thermal acute pain models
give some examples of mechanical acute pain models
von Frey Filament
give some examples of chemical acute pain models
what are some advantages of the tail flick acute pain assay
speed and ease of use
what are some disadvantages of disadvantages of the tail flick assay
low clinical relevance
what are some advantages of the tail withdrawl assay
no effect of repeated assay
what are some disadvantages of the tail withdrawl assay
what are some advantages of the hot plate assay
speed and ease of use no restraint required
what are some disadvantages of the hot plate assay
complex behaviors repeated testing effects
what are some advantages of the paw withdrawl assay
no restraint required can test contralateral hindpaw (allows for independent testing of both sides of the body) no effect of repeated testing
what are some disadvantages of the paw withdrawl assay
low clinical relevance long habituation time
what are some advantages of the von Frey filament assay
used in humans
what are some disadvantages of the von Frey filament assay
long habituation time hard to standardize across labs
what are some examples of common chronic pain assays
complete freunds adjuvant
chronic constriction injury
partial sciatic nerve ligation
spinal nerve ligation
spared nerve injury
increased response to noxious stimuli
response to normally non-noxious stimuli
what is the most common chemical used for abdominal constriction test
glacial acetic acid
what does IASP stand for?
international association for the study of pain
mechanism of action of barbiturates and propofol?
decrease the rate of dissociation of GABA from its receptor
mechanism of action of benzodiazepines?
enhance the affinity of the receptors for GABA
how are barbiturates metabolized?
by the cytochrome P450 pathway in liver, thus tolerance may be seen with repeated dosing
another name for Inactin
thiobutabarbital, no longer available in pharmaceutical grade
immune system effects of thiopental
inhibits cell mediated immunity, strong anti-inflammatory effect
in which species is propofol the least effective?
what anesthetic agent is considered ineffective in rabbits and results in both short periods of anesthesia and death?
anesthetic class of Alphaxalone
physiologic effects of alphaxalone
rapid induction of short term anesthesia
wide safety margin
minimal accumulation with repeated dose
Cremophor resulted in histamine release and its removal from the market
effects of benzodiazepines
marked sedation, anxiolytic, spinal cord mediated muscle relaxant, awareness persists, not analgesic, minimal cardiovascular and mild respiratory effects
mechanism of action for Ketamine
NMDA antagonist, binds to a receptor in the NMDA channel and prevents further ion flux, thus inhibiting glutamate action of the channel in a noncompetitive manner
what anesthetic agent are swine resistant to?
xylazine and all other alpha 2 agonists
what reversal agent is known to increase sexual activity in rats and monkeys?
atipamezole, other side effects are increases pain-related responses by blocking noradrenergic feedback inhibition of pain. beneficial effects on alertness , selective attention, planning, learning and recall
what is the proposed mechanism of action of inhalation anesthetics
enhancement of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA
where are the Mu opioid receptors located
cerebral cortex, thalamus, periaqueductal gray
where are the delta opioid receptors located
frontal cortex limbic system, olfactory tubercule
where are the kappa opioid receptors located
mechanism of action of Pentazocine
partial agonist of mu receptor(may be weak antagonist) and powerful k receptor agonist
mechanism of action of buprenorphine
partial mu agonist and k antagonist
mechanism of action of butorphanol
mu antagonist, k agonist
what is the differentiating feature of an A circuit?
fresh gas comes in at end of circuit instead of near ET tube connection
what is the differentiating feature of a D circuit?
rebreating bag is at the end of circuit, exhaust and pop off valve just before bag
what is the differentiating feature of an E circuit?
no rebreating bag
what is the differentiating feature of an F circuit?
exhaust and pop off are through the rebreathing bag
what is another name for the D circut?
a Baine system
name the blade
name the blade
name the blade
name the blade
name the blade
name the blade
Choi double-angle blade
What are the NIOSH recomendations for halogenated anesthetic gasses?
should not exceed 2ppm ceiling concentrations over a period of no greater than 1 hour
what is the usual method of obtaining time weighted average sampling of halogenated anesthetic gasses?
active or passive dosimetry
how often does OSHA recommend air monitoring be conducted for waste anesthetic gasses?
every 6 months
how long should permanent medical records of employees be kept?
duration of employment + 20 years
what injectable anesthetics have an effect at the GABA receptor?
propofol, metomidate, etomidate