A&P 1 L 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 1 L 5 Deck (85):
1

Raising a part (shrugging the shoulders)

Elevation

2

Moving a part backward (pulling the chin backward)

Retraction

3

Moving a part forward (thrusting the chin forward)

Protraction

4

Turning the foot so the sole faces medially

Inversion

5

Turning the foot so the sole faces laterally

Eversion

6

Turning the hand so the palm is downward or facing posteriorly (in anatomical position)

Pronation

7

Turning the hand so the palm is upward or facing anteriorly (in anatomical position)

Supination

8

Moving a part so that its end follows a circular path (moving the finger in a circular motion without moving the hand

Circumduction

9

Moving a part around an axis (twisting the head from side to side).

Rotation

10

Moving a part toward the midline (returning the upper limb from the horizontal position to the side of the body)

Adduction

11

Moving a part away from the midline (lifting the upper limb horizontally to form a right angle with the side of the body)

Abduction

12

Bending the foot at the ankle toward the sole (bending the foot downward)

Plantar flexion

13

Bending the foot at the ankle toward the shin (bending the foot upward)

Dorsiflexion

14

Excess extension of the parts at a joint, beyond the anatomical position (bending the head back beyond the upright position)

Hyperextension

15

Straightening parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move farther apart (straightening the lower limb at the knee)

Extension

16

Bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together (bending lower limb at the knee)

Flexion

17

Muscle primarily responsible for a particular movement

Prime mover

18

What muscle helps the prime mover

Synergistic muscles

19

What muscle resist the prime mover and stabilizes the muscle

Antagonist

20

Joint capsule of a synovial joint is called a

Bursa

21

What is the fluid that serves as the best lubricant

Synovial fluid

22

Moveable end of a joint

Insertion

23

The non moveable end is known as? Also known as?

Origin/fixed

24

2+ bones come together to form a joint

Articulation

25

Muscles are found in

Groups

26

What type of tissue is found around synovial joints

C.T

27

Binds muscle to bone

Tendons

28

When fascia comes together it forms what

Tendons

29

What separates individual muscles into groups

Fascis

30

What muscle surrounds the muscle to form a bundle

Aponeuroses

31

What divides the muscle inside the muscle

Paramycium

32

The expanded pouch on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is called a

Cristernae

33

What allows the nervous impulses to enter a muscle cell

T. Tubes (transverse tubules)

34

Unit of contraction

Sarcomere

35

cisternae stores what

Calcium

36

What are the 2 proteins of a myofibrils

Actin & myosin

37

What is the protein of a muscle called

Myofibrils

38

The muscle membrane is called

Sarcolemma

39

The plasm in the muscle fiber is called

Sarcoplasm

40

Little groups in the paramycium is called

Fascile

41

Extensions that covers each individual muscle for more protection

Epimycium

42

Covers the muscle cell

Endomycium

43

What is the most important mineral for muscle contraction

Calcium

44

Myo & sarco means

Muscle

45

An active cell contains a lot of what

Mitochondria & ribosomes

46

Structure of myosin; amount

Thick; 2/3

47

Structure of actin; amount

Thin; 1/4

48

A muscle cell is also called at what and why

Fiber; they are so long

49

Sheets of what type of connective tissue covers the muscle

Dense

50

What is the function of SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum

Transportation

51

Muscular disease/disorders: a tumor composed of a muscle tissue

Myoma

52

Muscular disease/disorders: crippling disease that progressively & gradually weakens & atrophies muscle

Muscular dystrophy

53

Muscular disease/disorders: prolonged muscle spasm

Myotoma

54

Muscular disease/disorders: involuntary contraction of muscles

Convulsion

55

Muscular disease/disorders: pain resulting from any muscular disease or disorder

Myalgia

56

Muscular disease/disorders: chronic disease; muscles easily fatigued due to a disorder at some neuromuscular junctions
Causes the improper transmission of stimuli

Myasthenia gravis

57

Muscular disease/disorders: rapid & uncoordinated contractions of individual muscle fibers that occur spontaneously

Fibrillation

58

Muscular disease/disorders: loss of the ability to move a body part

Paralysis

59

Muscular disease/disorders: partial or slight paralysis of the muscle

Paresis

60

Muscular disease/disorders: persistent quivering of a muscle

Myokymia

61

Muscular disease/disorders: degenerative disease in which skeletal muscle is replaced by fibrous connective tissue

Fibrosis

62

Muscular disease/disorders: the study of muscles

Myology

63

Loss of muscle's ability to contract

Muscle fatigue

64

Can result from muscle fatigue; lack of ATP; Lactic acid build-up

Muscle Cramp

65

When muscle goes anaerobic it produces lactic acid called

Oxygen debt

66

When the body clear up lactic acid from body is called

Repaid oxygen debt

67

What the the order of oxygen debt

Goes anaerobic-> lactic acid--> transfer thru blood ---> liver-> pyruvic acid (glucose)

68

Requires ATP in large amounts
ATPase (ATP->ADP)
Stored glycogen
Creating phosphate
Myoglobin

Skeletal muscle

69

Muscular responses: Minimal strength of stimulation needed to cause a contraction

Threshold srimulus

70

Muscular responses: No partial contractions of a muscle fibers

All or none

71

Muscular responses: Muscles shorten when they contract; attached ends pull closer together

Isotonic contraction

72

Muscular responses: Skeletal muscle contracts; but doesn't change in length

Isometric contraction

73

Muscular responses: Gives us posture (certain muscles that stay in a partial muscle contraction)

Tonus (muscle tone)

74

Muscular responses: What is tetanic contraction

Seizures rapid contractions

75

What muscle moves blood to veins

Skeletal muscles

76

Major source of body heat

Skeletal muscle

77

Heat is transported by what

Blood

78

When heat is transported by blood it helps ______________

Maintain body temperature

79

Lactic acid causes pH changes so the muscle fibers

No longer responsive to stimulation

80

Pigment synthesized in muscle cells; readily combines with & stores oxygen

Myoglobin

81

Enzyme in mitochondria that promotes synthesis of ___________; energy derived from ATP stored within bonds of ___________

Creatine phosphokinase

82

Primary source of energy available to regenerate ATP from ADP & phosphate

Creatine phosphate

83

Decomposes ATP to ADP & phosphate; releases energy

Myosin contains ATPase

84

Muscle has a supply of glucose in the form of stored what

Glycogen

85

Lowering a part (drooping the shoulders)

Depression