A&P 1.04 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology I > A&P 1.04 > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P 1.04 Deck (47)
0

Vasti

Huge

Vastus lateralis
Vastus medialis
Vastus intermedius

1

Vastus medialis

A,O,I

A - extend the knee (tibiofemoral joint)
O - medial lip of the linea aspera
I - tibial tuberosity via the patella ligament

2

Vastus lateralis

A, O, I

A - extend the knee (tibiofemoral joint)
O - lateral lip of the linea aspera, gluteal tuberosity and greater trochanter
I - tibial tuberosity (via the patella and patellar ligament)

3

Vastus intermedius

A, O, I

A - extend the knee
O- anterior and lateral shaft of the femur
I - tibial tuberosity ( via the patella and patellar ligament)

4

Linea aspera

Roughened ridge on posterior of femur

5

Bones to know

Illium, ischium, pubis, femur, tibia,

6

Structures to know

Pelvis
Femur
Lower leg

7

Structures to know

Pelvis

Illiac crest,
ASIS,
AIIS
Acetabulum

8

Structures to know

Femur

Head
Shaft condyles
Linea aspera
Gluteal tuberosity
Trochanter

9

Structures to know

Lower leg

Tibial tuberosity
Malleolus

10

Muscles can act on what joints?

Only joints they cross over

11

Homeostasis

Homeo - same
Stasis - standing still

12

Homeostasis defined

The condition of equilibrium, or balance in the body's internal and external environment, which remains relatively constant.

Maintained within the body by using a feedback mechanism.

13

Body's internal environment

We are a bag of fluid
Important aspect of homeostasis is by regulating it's body fluid: volume and composition

14

Feedback mechanism

Negative and positive
Actions/ mechanism that keep us in balance
Triggered by a stimulus or change in our environment
Receptors detect change
Body reacts

+ (positive) = increase
- (negative) = decrease

15

Positive Feedback mechanisms

Stimulators
Feedback increases the stimulus until something stops the process

Example: Giving birth

16

Negative feedback mechanisms

Primary feedback mechanism
Inhibitory
Feedback triggers mechanism to stop stimulus (in the opposite direction)
Example: Change in temperature or blood pressure

17

Homeostasis regulates

How much fluid there is
Where the fluids needs to be
And what's in it

18

Urinary system

Structures

Anatomy structure : kidney

Accessory structures:
ureters,
urinary bladder &
urethra

19

Urinary system

Functions

Produces, stores and eliminates waste
Regulates volume and chemical composition of the blood
Helps maintain the acid-base balance (ph) of blood fluids
Maintains mineral balance
Helps regulate production of RBC's (red blood cells)

20

Respiratory system

Upper & lower

21

Respiratory system

Upper

Nose
Pharynx (throat)
Nasopharynk
Oropharynk
Laryngopharynk
Larynx (voice box)

22

Respiratory system

Lower structures

Trachea (windpipe)
Bronchial tubes
Lungs

23

Respiratory system functions

Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood
Transfers carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air
Helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids
Produces sound: air flowing through larynx creates sound

24

Identify and distinguish pectoral girdle and upper extremity

Scapula: shoulder blade
Clavicle: collar bone
Humerus: arm bone
Radius: forearm (lat)
Ulna: forearm ( med)
Carpals: wrist
Metacarpals: hand
Phalanges: fingers digit

25

Bony attachments


Musculoskeletal anatomy

Glenoid cavity
Supraglenoid tubercle
Infraglenoid tubercle
Coracoid process
Ulnar tuberosity
Radial tuberosity

26

Glenoid cavity

shallow depression that accepts the head of the humerus to form the glenohumeral joint

27

Supraglenoid tubercle

Superior to the glenoid cavity on the scapula

28

Infraglenoid tubercle

located at the most superior aspect of the lateral border of the scapula

29

Coracoid process

at the lateral end of the superior border of the scapula is a projection on the anterior surface to which tendons of muscles attach

30

Ulnar tuberosity

Proximal end of the ulna

31

Radial tuberosity

Proximal end of the radius

32

Directional terms

Pelvic girdle and upper extremity

Internal (medial) rotation
External(lateral) rotation
Supination/ supine
Pronation/prone
Ventral
Dorsal

Review: flexion and extension in sagittal plane

33

Internal (medial) rotation

Long bones rotate toward the midline

34

External (lateral) rotation

Rotation of the long bones away from the midline

Primarily arms and hips

35

Supination

In hand or foot

Holding a bowl of soup; radius and ulna are parallel

36

Pronation

In hand or foot

Prone to spill; radius crosses over ulna

37

Ventral

Front

38

Dorsal

Back

39

Body fluids

List

Intercellular fluid
Extracellular fluid
Interstitial fluid
Blood plasma
Lymph
Cerebrospinal fluid
Synovial fluid

40

Intracellular fluid

Cytosol
Cytoplasm

Fluid inside the cell

41

Extracellular fluids (ECF)

(5)

Fluid outside the cells

Interstitial fluid
Blood plasma
Lymph
Cerebrospinal fluids
Synovial fluid

42

Interstitial fluid

Fills spaces between the cells of tissue

43

Blood plasma

ECF in the blood vessels

44

Lymph

ECF in the lymphatic vessels

45

Cerebrospinal fluids (CSF)

ECF found in and around the brain and spinal cord

46

Synovial fluids

ECF found in the synovial joints