A&P 15 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 15 17 Deck (119):
0

Once a molecule of for example sodium chloride enters the body....

H2o breaks down the molecules into electrolytes

1

hypernatremia

Too much sodium in blood

2

Hyponatremia

Too low sodium in blood

3

Hyperkalemia

Too much potassium in blood K+

4

Hypokalemia

Too little K+ in blood stream

5

Hypercalcemia

Too high calcium in blood

6

Hypocalcemia

Too low calcium in blood

7

Too high or too low K+ potassium can cause

Cardiac arrest

8

Positive charged ions

Cations

9

Negative charged ion

Anion

10

Why is iron important

In hemoglobin and red blood cells. Aids in oxygen transportation

11

Name a few life functions

Respiratory
Reproductive
Digestion
Responsiveness

12

The sequence of laws of matter an their interactions with energy

Physics

13

Is the science concerned with the structure and composition of matter an the chemical reactions these substances can produce

Chemistry

14

The dynamic interactions between anatomy and physiology / physical and emotional equilibrium / involves a humans chemical reactions physical condition and emotional status

Homeostasis

15

Anything that occupies space and weight

Matter

16

Name the top elements in the human body

C
O
H
N
Fe
Ca
K
Cl
S
Cr
Na

17

When atoms of two or more elements react chemically to form a substance

Compound

18

A blend of two or more substances that have been mixed together without forming a new compound

Mixture
Ex saline

19

Chemical structure remains unchanged but physical changes
Ex water

Physical change

20

When the components of a compound break down

Chemical change

21

medical terms

Hepato

Liver

22

Osteo

Bone

23

Neuro

Nerves

24

Gastric

Stomach

25

Itis

Inflammation

26

Ectomy

Removal of

27

Medical terminology based on names of people
Ex Parkinson's and Alzheimer's

Edonyms

28

The study of body structure

Anatomy

29

The study of how the body functions

Physiology

30

The study of functioning disorders

Pathophysiology

31

Body is divided into posterior and anterior portions

Frontal or coronal plane

32

Divides body into right or left sides

Sagittal or vertical plane

33

Divides body into inferior and superior portions

Transfers or horizontal plane

34

Space within the body that contains internal organs

Cavity

35

Dorsal posterior aviary contains

Cranial cavity
Spinal cavity

36

Ventral anterior cavity contains

Thoracic cavity
Adominipelvic cavity

37

The thoracic cavity contains

Mediastinum
Pericardial cavity
Two pleural cavities

38

The pericardial cavity holds

The heart

39

The pleural cavity holds the

Lungs

40

What does the adominopelvic cavity contain

Abdominal cavity
Pelvic cavity

41

Largest muscle that separates the central cavities

Diaphragm

42

The liver and the gallbladder can be found in what quadrant

Right upper quadrant
Right hypochondriac or
Epigrastric regions

43

What region would you find te stomach

Left upper quadrant

44

What region would you find the appendix

Left iliac region
Left lower quadrant

45

Abdominal cavity contains what organs

Stomach, spleen, kidneys

46

Pelvic cavity contains what's organs

reproductive organs
Urinary bladder

47

Thoracic cavity contains what organs

Heart and lungs

48

Directional term
Closer to skin

Superficial

49

Directional term

Furthest from skin

Deep

50

Lying face upward

Supine

51

Lying face downward

Prone

52

Structural levels in the body

Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organ system
Organism

53

Building up or conversion of chemicals from injected substances

Anabolism

54

Process of breaking down substances into simpler substances

Catabolism

55

Phospholipid double layer membrane of the cell

Cell membrane

56

Made up of DNA molecules that form genetic material called genes

Chromosomes

57

Source of aerobic respiration
Produces ATP
Power house of the cell

Mitochondria

58

Synthesizes carbs and transports proteins out of the cell
Exocytosis

Golgi apparatus

59

Digests enzymes to breakdown biological material

Lysosomes

60

Site of protein synthesis

Ribosomes

61

Contains centrioles which play a part in reproduction

Centrosomes

62

Mitosis

Cellular reproduction

63

Egg and sperm reproduction

Meiosis

64

Speeds up chemical reactions

Enzymes

65

Tissues
Covers and protects surfaces, cavities and lumina
A vascular w/ out blood vessels

Epithelial tissue

66

Tissues
Supports, binds, connects other tissues.
Provides protection to organs

Connective tissue

67

Name 4 types of connective tissue

Bone
Areole
Cartilage
Blood

68

Tissue
Skeletal, smooth and cardiac are all

Muscle tissue

69

Tissue
Composed of neuralgia and neurons

Nerve tissue

70

The dynamic process through which the body maintains balance by constantly adjusting to external and internal environments

Homeostasis

71

Occurs when the body reverses an original stimulus to regain physiologic balance.
Ex temperature, blood pressure

Negative feedback

72

When the body enhances or intensifies an original stimulus
Ex blood clotting
Women in labor

Positive feedback

73

Major systems involving feedback is

Nervous system and endocrine systems

74

Fluid within cells
Helps maintains cells shape

Isn't acellular fluid

75

Fluid outside the cell composed of intravascular fluid and interstitial fluid

Tissue fluid found in between cells

76

Tissue fluid found in between cells

Interstitial fluid

77

Intravascular fluid

Watery fluid found in blood
Plasma

78

Fluid found within epithelial lines spaces
Ex synovial fluid

Transcellular fluid
ECF

79

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

80

Where is CSF found

Brain
Spinal cord
Aqueous fluid - eyes

81

When there isn't enough ECF in the body blood pressure drops. When blood pressure drops what happens

Hypovelemic shock

82

Too much ECF can cause high blood pressure and risk for

Congestive heart failure

83

ADH

Anti diuretic hormone

84

In negative feedback
ADH is released an urine production is decreased and water reabsorption is increased because

There is an increase of sodium in the bloodstream

85

In negative feedback
Controls fluid volume
When blood volume decreases this system releases aldosterone to increase water and sodium reabsorption by the kidneys to stabilize blood volume

RAA
System

86

Negative feedback
Hearts right atrium releases

ANP

87

An excess of water in the body

Over hydration

88

Excess accumulation of fluid in interstitial fluid spaces

Edema
Endocrine disorders can cause this

89

The process by which the body used oxygen to form new needed substances

Oxidation

90

When water exerts pressure against the walls or vessels that contains it

Hydrostatic pressure

91

What is the major intercellular electrolyte

Potassium K+

92

What is the major extracellular electrolyte

Na+ sodium

93

A stable balance solution

Isotonic solution

94

When there is more water and less solvents in a solution this would be called

Hypotonic solution

95

When there is more solvents an less water In a solution this is called a

Hypertonic solution

96

What happens the a blood cell in a hypertonic solution

Cremated

97

What happens to a blood cell in a hypotonic solution

Hemolysis

98

When water moves from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration

Osmosis

99

Te transport of water and dissolved materials trough a membrane from an area if higher pressure to an area of lower pressure

Filtration

100

uses a protein carrier and insulin to open the doorway to allow glucose into or out of a cell

Facilitated diffusion

101

Requiring ATP for energy the balancing of NA+ and K+ in an out if the cell

Active transport

102

WBC's and microphages that engulf bacteria by

Phagocytosis

103

Cell drinking droplets of ECF

Pinocytosis

104

Leukocyte

WBC

105

Erythrocytes

Red Blood cell
RBC

106

Thrombocytes

Platelets

107

Fluid and electrolyte balance depend on

Osmolarity
Electro neutrality

108

The balance of positive and negative ions

Electro neutrality

109

Solutions with a lot of H+ atoms are considered

Acidic

110

These two organs create a neutral balance of acid and base in your blood. What are they and what are they called

Lungs and kidneys
Buffers

111

When PH is low it can cause diarrhea kerosine and kidney disorders

Metabolic acidosis

112

When PH is high causing dehydration vomiting and endocrine disorders

Metabolic alkalosis

113

PH 7.35-7.45

ECF
blood

114

Double membrane

Serous membrane

115

Membrane with an opening to the outside
Ex digestive system

Mucous membrane

116

Closest membrane to organ

Visceral membrane

117

Inner membrane

Pleura membrane

118

Outer membrane

Parietal membrane