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Flashcards in A & P 164 Deck (159):
1

The study of the structure of the body is

Anatomy

2

Specialized groups of cells with similar structure and function are

Tissues

3

The term used to describe something toward the body's midline is

Medial

4

The plane that divides the body into right and left sides is the

Sagital plane

5

Which organ system functions to destroy pathogens that enter the body

Immune system

6

The term Patellar is used to identify which region of the body

Knee

7

What is the name of the major body cavity encompassing the front portion of the body

Ventral

8

What is the term used to describe the abdominal region just under the breastbone

Epigastric

9

What type of tissue covers or line the body surfaces

Epithieal

10

The process of homeostatic regulation operates most often through a system of

Negative feedback

11

The nucleus of the cell is called the control centre because

It contains all the genetic material for the cell

12

The plasma membrane is made up of

A double layer of phosolipids with cholesterol and proteins embedded at various spots

13

What is the chief purpose of the Golgi Apparatus

Prepares and packages proteins in vesicles for export to other parts of the body

14

What is the function of the mitochondria

To convert organic compounds into ATP

15

The hair like processes on the surface of a cell that beat in waves to help propel material across its surface are called

Cilia

16

Which of the following correctly describes diffusion

It is a form of passive trasport in which particles move from an area of higher to lower concentration

17

Osmotic pressure is the

Water pressure that develops as a result of osmosis

18

If red blood cells are immersed in a hypertonic solution the cells will

Shrivel and lose fluid

19

Sodium - Potassium pump is

A pump that uses energy in the form of ATP to transfer sodium from inside the cells ( where {} is NA are low) to outside the cell ( where {} of NA are high) and to transfer potassium from outside the cell ( where {} P are low) to inside the cell (where {} P are high)

20

What is the process by which large molecules can leave the cell even though they are too large to move through the plasma membrane

Exocytosis

21

Which of the following statements about RNA is true

RNA exists in 3 forms

22

What determines the genetic code of strand of DNA

The sequence of bases

23

In which phase does the cell make an extra set of DNA

Synthesis

24

What is considered a lipid

Steroid

25

A reaction which a large molecule is broken into smaller molecules is called

Catabolism

26

A molecule consisting of glycerol and three fatty acid chains is a

Triglyceride

27

A fat without double bonds between carbine alone would be classified as

Saturated

28

Cholesterol is classified as a

Steriod

29

What is the function of proteins

Provides structure

30

ATP is an example of

Nucleic acid

31

A Cation is a ______ charged atone and forms an ionic bond

Positive

32

Hydrogen bonds occur

Between water molecules

33

What molecule forms the weakest bond

Hydrogen

34

A chemical compound contains at least two

Elements

35

Electrolytes are

Compounds that dissociate in water

36

Which is the most abundant inorganic compound in the body

Water

37

Glucose is classified as a

Monosaccharide

38

Which is the body's main source of energy

Carbohydrates

39

The body stores glucose in the form of

Glycogen

40

Ionic bonds are formed when

One atom transfers an electron from its outer shell to another atom

41

Nervous system contains

Spinal cord

42

Muscular system contains

Skeletal muscles

43

Skeletal system contains

Cartilage and ligaments

44

Integumentary system contains

Skin, hair and nails

45

Respiratory system contains

Nose and pharynx

46

Includes the stomach, small intestine and transverse colon

Umbilical region

47

Includes stomach as well as the right and left kidneys

Epigastric region

48

Includes liver, gallbladder and right kidney

Right hypochondriac region

49

Includes appendix, small intestine and ascending colon

Right iliac region

50

Includes part of the liver, left kidney and spleen

Left hypochondriac region

51

The sodium potassium pump works continuously to

Pump sodium out of the cells

52

Which tissue is a continuous sheet of tightly packed cells that covers the body's surface and lines cavities

Epithieal

53

Which gland secrete their products into ducts that empty onto a body surface

Exocrine

54

Which tissue is the most widespread and varies of all the tissues

Connective

55

Which connective tissue helps to insulate the body to conserve body heat

Adipose

56

The type of healing that occurs when damages tissue heals and is replaced by new functional tissue

Regeneration

57

Which type of cartilage makes up the discs in the vertebrae

Fibrocartilage

58

A gas law that states pressure and volume inversely related when temperature is constant

Boyle;s law

59

Inspired air has

A higher P02 than arterial blood

60

How much of the inspired oxygen is dissolved in blood plasma

1.5 %

61

Oxygen is transported in the blood by binding to

Hemoglobin

62

Carbaminohemoglobin is formed when

C02 binds to hemoglobin

63

Approx 70% of the carbon transported in the blood is in the form of

Bicarbonate ions

64

What substances allows for the surface tension of water inside an alveolus to be reduced

Surfactant

65

The air we breathe has a pressure of approx

760 mmHg

66

Which structure is responsible for directing food and liquid into the esophagus during swallowing

Epiglottis

67

Inhaled food or forgein object are most likely to lodge in which part of the resp

Right bronchus

68

What is one of the purposes of the fluid int he pleural cavity

Lubricate the pleural surfaces to allow them to glide painlessly during lung expansion and contraction

69

The main muscle responsible for ventilation is

The diaphragm

70

Which gas is the primary regulation of respiration

Carbon dioxide

71

Hard tissue composed of osteocytes

Bone

72

Collagen fibres that make up tenons and ligaments

Dense connective tissue

73

Fluid tissue with RBcs and WBCS

Blood

74

Tissue forming the ear

Elastic cartilage

75

Tissue that stores energy and provides insulation

Adipose tissue

76

Active movement of an ion such as sodium from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration

Transport by pumps

77

Movement of glucose across the cell membrane via a membrane channel

Facilitated diffusion

78

Passive movement of a lipid-soluble substance through the cell membrane

Diffusion

79

Forced movement of water through caprillary walls

Filitration

80

The movement of water across a membrane

Osmosis

81

Hemostasis is

Halting of blood loss

82

Immediate vasoconstriction following a break in blood vessel is caused by

Contraction of smooth muscle

83

The major function of platelets in hemostasis is

Forming a platelet plug over the opening in the vessel

84

What does hematocrit reveal

How much oxygen the blood can carry

85

Which WBC has the longest lifespan

Monocytes

86

What substance carried by each RBC, determines the blood types

Antigen

87

Which of the following will occur if someone with type a blood receives a transfusion with type b blood

Agglutination

88

What is the name of the great vessels that supply blood to the right atrium

Superior and inferior vena cava

89

On a ECG, the QRS complex represents

Ventricular depolarization

90

The hearts primary pacemaker is

The SA node

91

How does the myocardium receive its blood supply

Through the left and right coronary arteries

92

Parasympathetic nervous system sends impulses to the heart via the vagus nerve which

Slows the heart rate

93

The vessels that carry blood away from the hear are

Arteries

94

Veins are called capacitance vessels because

They have the ability to stretch, giving them a great capacity for storing blood

95

What is the purpose of the valves in the veins

Prevent back flow

96

The most important mechanism for caprillary exchange is

Diffusion

97

The frontal lobe is

The front of the central sulcus

98

Occipital lobe

Analyses and interprets visual information

99

Motor association area is

Involved with the intention to move

100

Primary motor area is found

In the precentral gurus

101

An injury to which part of the brain may result in a severe personality disorder and causes socially inappropriate behaviour

Frontal lobe

102

Which cranial nerve supplies most of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities as well as those in the head and neck

Vagus

103

Which is a action of parasympathetic division

Constricts bronchial tubes

104

What do cholingeric fibres secrete

Acetylcholine

105

People with type blood have B antigens in their RBC

True

106

People with type 0 blood have no antigens on their RBC

True

107

As sodium entered the postsynaptic neuron, the membrane depolarizers

True

108

A synapse is where an impulse is transmitted from one neuronal to another

True

109

People with type a blood have b anitgens on their RBS

False

110

People with 0 blood have both A and B antigens

False

111

People with type a blood have a antigens on the WBC

False

112

An impulse moves from a postsynpatic neuron to a presynpatic neuron

False

113

Neurotramitters bind to receptors on the presynaptic neuron

False

114

The release of a neurotransmitter always causes impulses transmission

False

115

Increase heart rate

Sympathetic

116

Causes fight or flight

Sympathetic

117

Stimulates intestinal motility

Parasympathetic

118

Stimulates sweat glands

Sympathetic

119

Ganglia lie near or within the target organ

Parasympathetic

120

Originates in the thoracolumbar region

Sympathetic

121

Epithieal tissue has no blood supply and depends completely on the connective tissue beneath it to supply it with oxygen and nutrients

True

122

In what type of epitheia do some cells stack on top of other cells but not touch the basement membrane

Stratified

123

Which part of the neuron transmits impulses to other cells

Axon

124

Which membranes line the boys surfaces that open directly to the body's exterior

Mucous

125

Which type of cartilage makes up the discs in the vertebrae

Fibrocartilage

126

The impulse conducting cells of the nervous system are called

Neuron

127

What is the blood- brain barrier

Semi-permeable membrane that permits small molecules like oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse across to the brain but blocks larger molecules

128

Which neuron detect senesations such as touch or heat and then relay information about the stimuli to the central nervous system

Afferent neuron

129

A nerve cell in which phase cannot respond to a new stimulus

Refractory period

130

Spinal nerves are mixed nerves, containing both sensory and motor fibres, making it capable of transmitting impulses in two directions

True

131

Which key nerve is part of the sacral plexus

Sciatic nerve

132

CSF furnishes the brain with glucose and protein

True

133

Which portion of the brain contain centeres responsible for such vital functions as heart rate, breathing and blood pressure

Medulla oblongata

134

Which brain structure influences nearly every organ and exerts control over the autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland?

Hypothalamus

135

Brain swelling from a head injury can compress this nerve and interfere with the ability of the pupils to react to light

Oculomotor

136

A characteristic of the somatic nervous system

Operates under voluntary control

137

The effect produced by a neurotransmitter is ultimately determined by

The type of receptor

138

Which substance allows RBC to transport oxygen

Hemoglobin

139

A move to high altitude would trigger what change in blood

Increased number of reticulocytes

140

Hemolysis may produce which physical sign

Jaundice

141

Which WBC would quickly migrate out of the blood vessels into the rises to ingest forgein invader?

Neutrophils

142

What is unwanted in part of hemostasis

Formation of thrombus

143

How would someone having a heart attack benefit from a drug that stimulates the conversion of plasminogen

Plasmin dissolves the fibrin mesh work around blood clots

144

The point of maximum impulse of the heart is at the

Apex

145

The portion of the heart wall that lines the hearts chambers is the

Endocardium

146

Which valve controls the flow of blood between the left atrium and the left ventricle

Mitral valve

147

The cardiac cycle is

The series of events that occur from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next

148

Cardiac output equals

Heart rate times stroke volume

149

What is the term used to describe the amount of tension or stretch in the ventricular muscle just before it contracts

Preload

150

Which arteries are called elastic arteries

Conducting arteries

151

What are the exchange vessels of the ciruulatory system

Caprillary ex

152

The most important mechanism for capillary exchange is

Diffusion

153

All systemic artieries arise directly or indirectly from the

Aorta

154

The reason blood constantly circulates is because of

Pressure gradients

155

What is the main reason blood flow is slower in the caprillaries

Capillaries have a greater cross sectional area

156

What is the function of the nasopharynx

Provide openings for the right and left Eustachian tubes

157

What purpose of the cartilaginous rings around the trachea serve

Keep the trachea from collapsing during inhalation

158

When pressure in the lungs drops lower than atmospheric pressure, what occurs?

Air flows into the lungs

159

Primary way blood is transported in the blood

Oxyhemoglobin