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Flashcards in A&P 2 L4 Deck (118):
1

Fluid that the lymphatic vessels carry

Lymph

2

Type of white blood cell that provides immunity; B cell or T cell

Lymphocyte

3

Composed of 3 layers: an endothelial lining, a middle layer of smooth muscle/elastic fibers & outer layer of CT
similar to veins but thinner

Lymphatic vessels

4

What drains lymph from the lymphatic vessels?

Lymphatic trunk

5

Microscopic, closed-ended tubes; forms complex networks with the blood capillaries; picks up plasma

Lymphatic capillaries

6

What are the 2 main collecting ducts

Thoracic duct & right lymphatic duct

7

Larger, longer of the 2 collecting ducts; originates in the abdomen; empties in the left subclavian vein

Thoracic duct

8

Originates in the right thorax; empties in the right subclavian vein

Right lymphatic duct

9

What happens after the lymph empties in the collecting ducts?

It's now called plasma; returns to the right atrium

10

Where does the lymph from the lower body region enter

Thoracic duct

11

Where does the lymph from the right side of the head & neck enter

Right lymphatic duct

12

What moves lymph through the lymphatic system

Hydrostatic pressure, osmotic pressure & valves

13

Blood vessels & nerves join a lymph node through the indented region of the node

Hilum

14

What type of lymphatic vessels leads a node at various points on its convex surface

Afferent vessels

15

What type of lymphatic vessel leaves the node from the hilum

Efferent vessels

16

Allergy-causing agents (non-living); dust; pollen; food

allergens

17

Any response given by a lymphocyte to an antigen

Immunity

18

A particular antigen; antibiotics for staph/strep; vaccination shot

Specific

19

Covers a whole wide range; broad group

Non-specific

20

Any substance to which a lymphocyte shows a response; bacteria in body

Antigens

21

What are the 2 groups of antigens

Pathogens & allergens

22

Disease-causing agents (living organism); viruses; protozoans; bacteria; fungi

Pathogens

23

What attacks viruses & tumor; malignant/beign?

Interferon

24

What is the primary response to prevent the injury from spreading called

Localization

25

What removes unwanted clots

Heparin

26

Chemical attraction of WBCs toward the injury site

Positive chemotaxis

27

Stoppage of bleeding

Hemostasis

28

Movement of WBCs thru vessel walls

Diapedesis

29

Removal of damaged/cells and pathogens from area is known as

Phagocytosis

30

What Maintains constant blood volume prevent edema

Lymphatic system

31

What increases metabolic rate of tissue cells (ct cells; mitosis; cell growth)

Growth factors

32

What is released when cells are damaged

Chemicals; kinins; histamines; etc

33

What are some examples of injurious agents

Pathogens; allergens; chemicals

34

When blood vessels dilate what happens next

Increased in blood flow into area

35

What happens after clotting proteins enter the area

Hemostasis

36

Fluid in tissue spaces

Edema

37

The presents and multiplication of disease-causing agents

Infection

38

Blood cell producing tissue

Hematopoietic tissue

39

Substances that the body produces

Self-substances

40

Substances that enters our body from the outside

Non-self substance

41

RBM in the fetus produces what

Undifferentiated lymphocytes

42

When a cell is undifferentiated it

Has no purpose

43

When a cell is differentiated it

Has a purpose

44

Stem cells are

Undifferentiated

45

During fetal development what produces blood cells

Fetal liver, spleen & yolk sac

46

The undifferentiated lymphocytes goes into what

The blood

47

What hormone does the thymus gland produce

Thymosin

48

Thymosin targets what cells

Thymocytes

49

Once thymocytes are differentiated they produce what

T lymphocytes or T cells

50

About 70-80% of the __ ___________ circulates the lymphocytes

T lymphocytes

51

About 20-30% of what becomes abundant in lymph nodes; thoracic duct; spleen

T lymphocytes

52

Where is the thymus gland located

Between the trachea & heart

53

About what % of the undifferentiated lymphocytes are processed in the liver

50%

54

Bone marrow derived are known as

B-lymphocytes

55

Approximately what % does b lymphocytes circulates the lymphocytes

20-30%

56

What cells act directly against antigens by producing & secreting antibodies

B cells

57

What is an example of antibodies

Gamma globulins

58

What cells synthesize and secrete lymphokines which enhance various cellular response to antigens

T cells

59

Which cell are cell mediated

T & B cells

60

What cell requires the presence of another kind of cell before they become activated

T cells

61

When someone acts the same way as you they are a

Clone

62

1st time T cell or B cell sees its particular antigen: 1st encounter with particular antigen

Primary immune response

63

Anytime after the 1st encounter; a lot of memory cells that are left; they remember that particular antigen & attack fast

Secondary immune response

64

What produces antibodies

B cells

65

What are lacteals

Specialized lymphatic capillaries located in the villi of the small intestine

66

What are the functions of lacteals

Absorb & transport lipids from the digestive system

67

Tissue fluid that has entered a lymphatic capillary is called

Lymph

68

Lymph glands are called

Nodes

69

What is the largest lymphatic organ

Spleen

70

Where are t lymphocytes produced

Thymus gland

71

Disease-causing agents are known as

Pathogens

72

Name some non-specific immunity

Species resistance, mechanical barriers, enzymatic actions, interferon, inflammation, phagocytosis

73

The resistance of a particular foreign agents is called

Specific immunity

74

A group of hormone-like peptides; produced by lymphocytes & fibroblasts are known as

Interferon

75

An artificially acquired active immunity is also known as

Vaccine

76

What reaction can either be immediate or delayed

Allergic

77

What type of drugs are given to organ transplant recipients

Immunosuppressive drugs

78

The right lymphatic duct empties into the what of the circulatory system

Right subclavian vein

79

The movement of lymph is controlled largely by

Skeletal activity

80

Structural units of lymph nodes are called

Nodules

81

Lymph nodes contain large numbers of cells called

Lymphocytes

82

Large numbers of what are responsible for the color of the "red pulp" in the spleen

RBCs

83

The body's defense mechanisms against disease-agents is called

Immunity

84

What picks up the plasma that escapes from the capillary beds

Lymphatic capillaries

85

What filters lymph

Lymph nodes

86

What area few ways to move lymph

Skeletal muscles, valves, atmospheric pressure, hydrostatic pressure, osmotic pressure

87

Where does interstitial fluid originate from

Plasma

88

What is a lobule

A space/cavity in the spleen

89

What tissue makes up the lymph nodes

Dense ct

90

Where is you spleen located

Lateral to stomach or outside the greater omentum

91

What organ is full of lymphocytes

Spleen

92

What organ can we live without in the lymphatic system

Spleen

93

Where are T cells produced

Thymus gland

94

Antibodies produced & secreted by ______ are ALL soluble globular proteins called_______

B cells; immunoglobulins

95

What can serve as an accessory cell to the T cells

Macrophages/B cells

96

Type of Specific Immunity: produces antibodies; long term immunity; gets the disease

Naturally acquired active immunity

97

Type of specific immunity: long term immunity; vaccine

Artificially acquired active immunity

98

Type of specific immunity: gamma globulins injections with ready made antibodies; short term

Artificially acquired passive immunity

99

What are haptens

Small allergens

100

What drug stops the body from rejecting the organ

Immunosuppressive drug

101

What allows females to keep an embryo attached to her uterus; prevents antibodies to attack the fetus

Selective immune response

102

Type of allergic reaction: exaggerated response

Delay

103

Type of allergic response: when exposed with allergen; has an allergic reaction right away

Immediate

104

Cells produced by allergens design to take care of specific allergens

T suppressor

105

T or B cells remember the antigen after 1st response; prevents you from getting as ill
(Basically when you get sick, the specific cell comes to the site and fights the antigen off so that you don't get sick the 2nd time)

Memory cells

106

What happens after hemostasis in the immunity response

Fibrin barrier

107

Every species are immune from other species; resistance to the diseases

Species resistance

108

Membranes (cutaneous membrane=skin) keeps everything out

Mechanical barriers

109

Everyone of our body fluid contains enzymes that fight infections

Enzymatic actions

110

Chemical produced by fibroblast & lymphocyte
(Viruses & tumors)

Interferon

111

Neutrophil & monocytes to engulf them
(Eats everything)

Phagocytosis

112

What is the difference between specific & non-specific immunity

Specific- respond to a unique/particular set of cells; non-specific- responds to a wide range of cells

113

What does the spleen filter?

Blood

114

The vessels into which fats are absorbed are called

Lacteals

115

Where is the red pulp & white pulp located

Spleen

116

The red & white pulp are located where in the spleen

In the lobules

117

What is the lymph node & spleen sectioned off by

Dense CT

118

Mass of lymphoid tissue located along the course of a lymphatic vessel

Lymph node