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Flashcards in A&P 2 L5 Deck (104):
0

ADH is produced by what structure in the body

Hypothalamus

1

What are the 2 factors that have the primary effect on the composition of the urine:

Diet and Exercise

2

things we don't want in the urine

Blood, Glucose, Protein, Bacteria

3

Sugar in the urine

Glucosuria

4

Hormone released when body is dehydrated

ADH- Anti-Diurectic Horomone

5

Hollow chamber located inside the medial depression of the kidney

Renal sinus

6

The entrance to the renal sinus is called

Hilum

7

Name the expanded superior end of the ureter

Renal pelvis

8

What are the functional units of the kidney

Nephrons

9

The renal ______ lies between adjacent renal pyramids

Columns

10

Where is the hormone erythropoietin produced

Kidneys

11

What is the functions of erythropoietin

Helps control the rate of RBC formation

12

What is renin

An enzyme

13

What is the function of renin

Help regulate BP

14

What are the 2 major region of the kidney

Medulla & cortex

15

Urine is primarily composed of

Water

16

Name substances that are reabsorbed in the nephrons

Glucose; a.a; NaCl; Cl; water

17

ADH is secreted when the body is

Dehydrated

18

The 1st portion of a nephron is called

Renal corpuscle; renal capsule; bowmans capsule

19

The final portion of a nephron is known as

Collecting duct

20

Renal veins join the ______ that carries the blood back to the heart

Inferior vena cava

21

After end arterioles carry blood to the ______ of each nephron

Glomerulus

22

What is urea

By-product of an animo acid catabolism

23

Movement of materials from the peritubular capillaries into the renal tubule occurs in the ______ phase of urine formation

Secretion

24

Tubular organs that run from the kidneys to the urinary bladder are

Ureters

25

What is the triangular area that form the 3 openings in the urinary bladder

Trigone

26

What are the 3 openings in the urinary bladder

2 ureter; 1 urethra

27

What is another word for urination

Micturition

28

Which of the sphincters located in the urinary bladder is composed of voluntary muscle

External sphincter

29

The tubular organ running from the urinary bladder to the outside is called

Urethra

30

What are the major arteries that deliver blood to the kidneys

Renal arteries

31

3 phases of urine production

Filtration; reabsorption; secretion

32

Where does the process of filtration occur in the kidneys

Renal capsule

33

The ability of an organ or tissue to maintain a constant blood flow when the arterial blood pressure changes is called

Autoregulation

34

What is autoregulation

The ability of an organ or tissue to maintain a constant blood flow when the arterial blood pressure changes

35

Glucose in the urine is called

Glucosuria

36

What are some methods of passive transport?

Simple diffusion; facilitated diffusion; osmosis; filtration

37

ADH is produced in the

Hypothalamus

38

How many layers does the urinary bladder have

4

39

What are the layers of the urinary bladder

E.T; 2smooth muscles; C.T

40

What are the 2 smooth muscles in the urinary bladder called

Detrusor muscle

41

What kind of reflex is micturition reflex

Simple reflex

42

What are the baroreceptors located in the urinary bladder

Lines the walls

43

What system/s/ is the urethra in male & female

Male: reproductive & urinary
Female: urinary only

44

What causes the sense of urgency

Micturition reflex

45

What type of E.T is in the urinary bladder

Transitional

46

How many layers does the ureter consist of

3

47

What are the 2 sphincters in the urinary system and where are the located

Internal urethra sphincter- top of urethra; between bladder & urethra
External urethra sphincter- below the internal urethra sphincter

48

How many mL could the urinary bladder hold

600

49

What is normal amount of urine in the bladder

150-250 mL

50

What goes under pressure changes

Urinary bladder

51

What is a urethra orrfice

Opening to the outside

52

What is incontinental

Can't control sphincter

53

What is limited transport capacity

Amount of a material that can be transported is limited by the numbers of protein carriers available

54

What stores and releases ADH

Posterior lobe of the pituitary

55

Name the parts of the nephrons in order closest to the glomerulus

Proximal convoluted tubule; loop of henle; distal convoluted tubule; collecting duct

56

What moves the urine thru the kidneys

Renal pyramids

57

What is normally found in urine

Creatine, creatinine, urea, Uric acid, water, mucus, traces of amino acids, traces of electrolytes

58

Compare passive & active transport

Active: require energy; against the concentration gradient; require protein carriers; endocytosis/exocytosis
Passive: no energy require; with the concentration gradient; no protein carriers required EXCEPT for facilitated diffusion; osmosis/hydrostatic pressure/osmosis/facilitated diffusion

59

What filters blood in the kidneys

Nephrons

60

4 distinct structures in the urinary system

Kidneys; ureters; urinary bladder; urethra

61

What are calyces

Branches

62

Kidney stones form in the

Renal pelvis

63

Characteristics of kidney stones

Jagged and calcium based stones

64

The 3rd layer of CT for protection &

Attaching to tissues to hold it in place

65

Bladder most sensitive to pressure changes

Pregnant woman

66

Finger like projections; empties urine into renal pelvis

Renal papillae

67

All blood that leaves the kidney does so through the renal vein then to the inferior vena cava

Renal vein

68

Supplies blood to the the kidneys; comes off the abdominal aorta

Renal artery

69

Made cortex material that extends down into the medulla

Renal columns

70

Middle section of the kidneys

Renal medulla

71

Groups of tubes that carries urine from the nephrons to the renal pelvis

Renal pyramids

72

Superior ends of ureters; it enters the kidney it branches; branches referred to as the renal pelvis

Renal pelvis

73

What percentage of our blood if filtered per day by the kidneys

10-20%

74

When your body doesn't produce enough insulin it result in

Glucosuria

75

The amount of material our body can move in an _______ is limited by the number of carriers

Active transport

76

reabsorption stage takes place in the

Renal tubule

77

The reabsorption stage saves ______ material from the renal tubule & sends it where

Peritubular capillary

78

Where is the glomerulus located

Renal capsule

79

Secretion stage takes place in the

Renal tubule

80

Secretion stage gets rid of

Materials we don't want from the blood into the filtrate

81

Peritubular capillary to the renal tube

Secretion stage

82

Filtration occurs in the

Renal capsule

83

The substance is filtered from capillary bed into the renal tubule

Filtrate

84

What percentage is considered dehydrated

1-2%

85

What is the minimum of mL of urine that should be produced by the kidneys per hour

30

86

What sits on top the kidneys

Adrenal glands

87

The adrenal glands are part of what system

Endocrine

88

Carries blood toward the renal capsule

Afferent arterial

89

Ball of capillaries is called

Glomerulus

90

Function of glomerulus

Filter & exchange material

91

What carries blood away from the glomerulus

Efferent arterial

92

The efferent arterial gets out the capsule and turns into what

Peritubular capillary

93

The peritubular capsule runs around the entire what

Renal tubule

94

After the peritubular capillary it turns into a

Venule

95

Extends into the renal medulla; cortex material; filler substance/protect pyramids

Renal column

96

Carries urine from the nephrons to renal pelvis

Renal pyramids

97

Supplies the kidneys with used blood that is not filtered yet

Suprarenal artery

98

Every bit of blood enters where

Renal artery

99

What is the structure that is before the renal artery where blood passes thru

Abdominal aorta

100

Once the blood leaves the renal artery it enters the kidneys then leaves thru the______ then ________

Renal vein; inferior vena cava

101

Removes certain things out of the blood

Filtration

102

Kidney stones found in

Renal pelvis

103

Functions of kidneys

Removal of metabolic waste from blood (filter blood)
Excretion of waste as urine
Helps control RBCs with erythropoietin hormone
Helps regulate BP by secreting renin (vasoconstriction/ vasodilation)
Helps absorption of calcium ions by activating Vitamin D
Helps regulate Volume, Composition, & pH