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Flashcards in A&P 2 L6 Deck (118):
0

Reproduction without union of gametes

Asexual

1

Sex cell= Sperm/ egg

Gamete

2

Types of Asexual Reproduction:

Lower classes of animals; piece of organism breaks off & forms new individual

Fragmentation

3

Types of Asexual Reproduction:

Simple cell division to form a new organism

Fission

4

Types of Asexual Reproduction:

Only involves eggs; the development of unfertilized eggs

Parthogensis

5

Types of Asexual Reproduction:

One egg and One sperm;
Forms a zygote; then zygote splits

Identical Twins

6

Types of Asexual Reproduction:

Specialized structure bud and release; reproduces by forming buds by mitosis

Budding

7

Advantages of Asexual Reproduction

1. Only one parent

2. Produce a lot of individual in a
short period of time.

3. Adapted to their environment

8

Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction:

1. Very little genetic ability

2. Not well adapted to changing
environment

9

Sexual Reproduction:
Sex cells- Sperm/ eggs combine

Union of Gametes

10

Advantages of Sexual Reproduction

1. Genetic recombination- A lot

2. Genetic Variability- A lot

3. Adapt well to changing
environment

11

Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction

1. 2 parents

2. Much more complex
reproductive processes and
reproductive structure

12

Body cells; example- zygote, skin cells

Somatic cell

13

Gonads- define and give 2 examples

Primary sex cell producing organ

Ex. Testes and ovaries

14

Every other structure besides "Gonads" in the male and female reproductive system is called secondary organs:

True or False

True

15

Fertilized eggs = (2N=diploid)

Zygote

16

1 replication of chromosomes and 2 cell division (tested & ovaries)

Meiosis

17

Define Mitosis:

1 Replication of chromosomes and 1 cell division

18

R= Haploid is:

Sperm and egg= N= 23
Single set of chromosomes

19

2n= Biploid

46 chromosomes
2 Full sets of chromosomes

2N= 46

20

The only cells in the human body that are not diploid cells are:

Sperm and Egg

21

Haploid Cells are:

Sperm and egg

22

What is "Spermatogenesis:

When sperm is produced and occurs in the testes

23

What is "Oogenesis:

Ovaries production of eggs

24

Name 2 types of asexual reproduction

Fission, budding, parthenogenesis, identical twins

25

Name 2 advantages of sexual reproduction

Genetic recombination, genetic variation, advantageous in changing environments

26

What was the 1st class of animals to no longer require water for sexual reproduction

Reptiles

27

Mammals with pouches are called

Marsupials

28

When animals moved onto the land from the water, fertilization and embryonic development went from _______ to _________

External/internal

29

Name 2 gonads in man

Testes & ovaries

30

What is gubernaclum and what is its function

Fibromuscular cord that aids in the descent of the testes from the abdominal cavity into the scrotum

31

What is acrosome

Structure found at the anterior end of a sperm cell; contains enzymes that aid in penetration of the egg

32

Approximately how long. Do sperm cells remains in the epididymis

18hrs

33

What are 2 substances that are secreted by the seminal vesicle

Alkaline fluid, fructose, prostaglandins

34

What is the gland located under the prostate gland that secrete a mucus-like lubricant

Bulbourethral glands (cowpers gland)

35

The pH of semen

7.5

36

What is most abundant in androgens

Testosterone

37

The hormone FSH and LH are found only in females. True or False

False

38

The external female reproductive organs are collectively known as the

Vulva

39

What male reproductive structure is homologous to labia majora

Scrotum

40

What hormone is produced by the corpus lutetium

Progesterone

41

The outermost layer if the uterine wall is called

Perimetrium

42

If fertilization occurs,it will occur in the

Oviduct (Fallopian tube)

43

What is a zygote

Fertilize egg

44

The transformation of a fertilized egg into a complete organism is known as

Development

45

What is a fertilization membrane and what is responsible for its formation

Membrane produced by an egg to prevent the entry of sperm cells; initiated by the entry of sperm cell

46

Layer of cells enclosing the embryo in a blastocyst is known as

Trophoblast

47

Movement of cells of the blastocyst into new relative positions within the uterine wall is called

gastrulation

48

The outermost germ layer is called

Ectoderm

49

What is the second extraembryonic membrane to develop

Allantois

50

What constitutes the embryonic of the placenta

Chorion

51

Name of prenatal genetic test that is conducted by taking a sample of fluid from the amniotic cavity

Amniocentesis

52

The male gonad is

Teste

53

Male secondary reproductive structure secretes prostaglandins

Seminal vesicle

54

An egg develops in a _______ located in the ovary

Ovarian/graffian follicle

55

What is the function of the bartholins glands

Secrete mucus to lubricate the vulva

56

Creation of the adult form/shape

Morphogenesis

57

Name of muscular sphincter that guards the opening of the uterus into the vagina

Cervix

58

Structure in man is responsible for the exchange of nutrients, gases, & wastes between the mother & embryo

Placenta

59

Define fetus

Miniature man

60

When a sperm cell leaves the epididymis, it enters the

Vas deferens

61

What is the dilation stage of labor

Onset of contractions until full cervical dilation

62

The urethra in males carries both _____ & _____

Urine/sperm

63

Function of the ostium

Guides the egg into Fallopian tube

64

At what specific site within the testes does spermatogenesis occur

Seminiferous tubules

65

Liver cell of species A: 12 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are there in a zygote of species A

12

66

Species B: haploid # chromosomes of 8. What is the combined #. Of chromosomes found in a brain cell , nerve cell & sex cell of species B

Brain cell: 16; nerve cell: 16; sex cell: 8
total: 40

67

what are then3 steps of development

Growth
Differentiation
Morphogenesis

68

4 events in fertilization

1. Egg forms fertilization membrane
2. Introduce male DNA
3. Metabolic activation in the egg
4. Cleavage

69

What is cleavage?

Rapid production of very tiny cells

70

Formation of hollow ball of cells

Blastulation

71

Hollow ball of cyst is called a

Blastocyst

72

What is blastopore

Future anus

73

Union of sperm/cell "gametes"

Fertitilization

74

Specialization of cells & tissues

Differentiation

75

Where is the short term location of sperm

Epididymis

76

Where is the long term storage of sperm

Vas deferens

77

The mitochondria of sperm is filled with what type of sugar

Fructose

78

What produces chorionic gonadotropin

Trophoblast

79

What hormone targets the corpus luteum

Chorionic gonadotropin

80

When a blastocyst burrows into the endometrium it's called

Implantation

81

The rearrangement of cells to germ layers is called

Gastrulation

82

What are the 3. Germ layers

Endoderm
Mesoderm
Ectoderm

83

What are the 2 types of protection during embryonic development

Thermal & mechanical protection

84

What is the embryonic portion of the placenta

Chorion

85

What is the maternal portion of the placenta

Endometrium

86

What is the rudimentary structure

Yolk sac

87

What forms the primitive urinary bladder

Allantois

88

Picture of chromosomes

Karyotypes

89

What forms the umbilical cord

Allantoic stalk

90

What type of test takes a small piece of chorion

Chorionic villus biopsy

91

What type of test takes a sample of the amniotic fluid

Amniocentesis

92

How many weeks is amniocentesis

16 weeks

93

At How many weeks is chorionic villus biopsy

8 weeks

94

What causes low birth weights (under 5-6lbs)

Smoking

95

What is knowing as the most sensitive period during pregnancy

1st 2 months

96

During what trimester is protein intake critical to the fetus for brain development

Final

97

What is independent existence

Cutting the umbilical cord

98

Body cells are also known as

Somatic cells

99

What is the technical term for production of eggs

Oogenesis

100

Ovaries are known as the primary

Oocyte

101

Testes are known as the primary

Spermatocyte

102

Egg laying mammals; amniotic eggs; only mammals to be laid on land still parental care

Monotremes

103

What is an example of monotremes

Platypus

104

Which animals require water for reproduction & produces many small eggs with external fertilization/embryonic development

Fish & amphibians

105

At what age are men at risk for prostate gland problems & what percent

70-85 years old & 85%

106

What is capicitation

Sperm cell can effectively fertilize an egg (due to enzymes in female body)

107

Structures that have a common evolutionary origin is known as

Homologous

108

What are some examples of homologous structures

Testes-ovaries
Scrotum-labia
Penis-clitoris

109

What is analogous

Structures in the body that have the same purpose but different evolutionary origin

110

What are some examples of analogous

Bird wings vs beetle wings

111

Where is the hormone estrogen & androgen produce

Pituitary & hypothalamus

112

Finger like structure that guides the egg to the Fallopian tube

Fimbriae/ostium

113

Where is the oocyte produced

In a follicle

114

What is a follicle

Chamber in the ovary

115

Approximately how long does an oocyte live

72 hours

116

What transport the oocyte to the uterus from the ovary

Fallopian tube

117

What are the 3 parts to the uterus

Fundus, body, cervix