A&P 2.19 Adrenals, gonads, posterior pituitary gland Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 2.19 Adrenals, gonads, posterior pituitary gland Deck (17)
1

Gastrocnemius


A, I, O

A - flex the knee, plantar flex the ankle

O - condyles of the femur, posterior surface

I - calcaneus via calcaneal tendon

DEEP TO HAMSTRINGS ONLY AT ORIGION

PLANTER - PLANT

2

Soleus


A, O, I

A - plantar flex the ankle

O - sole all line, proximal, posterior surface of the tibia, and posterior aspect of head of fibula

I - calcaneus via calcaneal tendon

3

Adrenal glands

General

Cholesterol hormones

Location- on top of kidneys(retroperitoneum)

2 portions - medulla (middle) and cortex - bark (outer portion)

4

Adrenal glands

Medulla

Hormones : epinephrine (80%) and norepinephrine (20%)

Target: sympathetic effectors ( skin, heart, lungs, eye, liver)

Effect: enhance and prolong fight/flight in sympathetic ANS

5

Adrenal glands

Cortex portion - three different sections

SALT, SWEET and SEX

Slow change, steroid hormones

Outer zone - Zona glomerulosa - Aldosterone - salt
Middle zone - zona fasciculata - cortisol - sweet.
Inner zone - zona reticulims - androgens/estrogens - sex

6

Adrenal cortex

Aldosterone

Mineral corticoid

Location- zona glometulosa ( outer zone)

Target - kidneys

Effect- conservation of sodium by kidneys, release of ADH causes water retention by body; dump K+ and H+ into urine for excretion

7

Adrenal glands

Cortex

Cortisol

Glucocorticoid - zona fasciculata - sugar/ sweet

Target - general

Effect- metabolism of food and anti inflammatory effect, ATP Production

8

Adrenal glands

Cortex
Androgens

Gonadocorticoid

Target - sex organs

Effects - women - promote libido and is converted to estrogen

Both - stimulate axillary and pubic hair, contributes to prepubertal growth

9

Gonads

Ovaries and testes
Location- ovaries: pelvic cavity - paired oval bodies in pelvic cavity
testes: scrotum, oval glands, lie in the scrotum

Hormones- ovaries- estrogen and progesterone; scrotum - testerone
Target - general
Effect - female- establish body shape, maintain monthly cycle, prepares and maintains pregnancy
Male - regulate sperm production, stimulates and maintains development of male characteristics (beard/deep voice)

10

Ovaries and tested

Exocrine functions versus endocrine functions

Exocrine: Production of eggs/ovum and/or sperm

Endocrine: hormones (estrogen and testosterone)

11

Major hormones of the posterior pituitary

2

ADH

Oxytocin

11

Pituitary gland

2 lobes

Anterior - larger - adenohypophysis


Posterior - smaller - neurohypophysis - contains neurosecretory cells

Location for both: hypophyseal fossa of sphenoid bone also known as "sella turica" - Turkish saddle

12

Sella turica

Turkish saddle

Fossa of the sphenoid bone

13

ADH

Antidiurecic hormone - retains salt

Target - kidneys

Effect - retains water in the kidneys

15


Oxytocin

Target - uterus and breasts

Effects - stimulates uterine contractions and milk let down

16

Hormones stored in the posterior pituitary but are NOT

SYNTHESIZED BY THE POST PITUITARY gland

ADH and oxytocin

17

ADH And oxytocin are made in the

Hypothalamus and carried by neurosecretory cells to the post pituitary gland for storage