A&P 22 23 24 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 22 23 24 Deck (163):
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The bodies ability to recognize and destroy specific pathogens such as: bacteria, viruses and parasites

Immunity

1

Bone marrow
Lymphoid organs
Mononuclear phagocytic system
All part of the bodies

Immune system

2

Main site of blood formation

Bone marrow

3

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells

4

Leukocytes

White blood cells

5

Thrombocytes

Platelets

6

These cells defend the body against disease, organisms, toxin and irritants

White blood cells
Leukocytes

7

Cardiovascular system contains

Heart and blood vessels

8

-pumps blood to body and lungs
-receives blood from body and lungs
- influences blood pressure

The heart

9

Provides channels through which blood and lymphs travel

Blood vessels

10

Inferior lower part of the heart

Apex

11

The heart membrane three layers

Endocardium
Myocardium
Epicardium

12

Endocardium

Membrane lining interior wall of the heart

13

Myocardium

Cardiac involuntary muscle
Middle layer

14

Epicardium

The outermost layer of cardiac membrane wall

15

A ska that surrounds and protects the heart

Pericardium

16

Pericardium contains

Epicardium
Pericardial space or cavity
Parietal later

17

divides the heart into right an left sides

Septum

18

Two upper chambers of the heart receiving centers for blood

Atria

19

Two lower chambers of heart pumps blood out the heart

Ventricles

20

Name two atrioventricular valves

Tricuspid valves - right
Bicuspid valves - left

21

Bodies largest artery

Aorta

22

Tube that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs

Pulmonic valve

23

Tube that carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the aorta and ultimately to upper and lower body

Aortic valve

24

Deoxygenated blood received from upper body passes through where to get to the right atrium

Superior vena cava

25

Deoxygenated blood from lower body reaches where before entering atrium

Inferior vena cava

26

Deoxygenated Blood pathway to the heart

Superior and inferior vena cava
Right atrium
Tricuspid valve
Right Ventricle
Pulmonic valve
Pulmonary artery
Lungs

27

Blood pathway after oxygenation to the body

Lungs O2 & CO2 transfer
Pulmonary veins
Left atrium
Bicuspid valve (mitral)
Aortic valve
Aorta

28

Supplies blood through branches all over the heart

Coronary arteries

29

Blockage of arteries

Myocardial insufficiency

30

Reversible cell injury due to decreased blood And oxygen

Ischemia

31

Heart attack
A localized area of dead tissue caused by lack of blood supply

Myocardial infarction

32

Circulation that occurs when the blood vessel is plugged and another evolves to take over its function usually in the heart

Collateral circulation

33

An opening in the heart in the heart which returns blood to the right atrium

Coronary sinus

34

Brachiocephalic artery on aortic arch

Far left
Feeds upper extreme ties
Right Head and neck

35

Left common carotid on aortic arch

Middle
Left side of head and neck

36

Left subclavian

Far right
Extends to
Axillary
Brachial
Radial
Ulnar

37

Blood flow through the capillaries

Microcirculation

38

Holds 60-70 percent of the body's blood volume at rest

Veins

39

Tissue layers of veins

Tunica intima - inner
Tunica media- middle
Tunica adventitia - outer

40

How many layers surround capillaries

One cell later thick
Endothelium

41

Bundles of unique tissue in the heart transmit and coordinate electrical impulses to stimulate heart

SA node

42

Picks up signals from SA node and holds onto it until atria have contracted and empties blood into the vessels

AV node

43

When both atria contract it's called

Systole

44

When both ventricles contract this is called

Diastole

45

Factors affecting cardiac output

Preload
After load
Blood pressure

46

Plugging of vessel which causes ischemia and leads to necrosis ( tissue death)

Occlusion

47

Plaques that contain fats and cholesterol deposited in arteries causing occlusion is called

Artherosclerosis

48

Inflammation of vessel

Vasculitis

49

And imbalance between fluid intake an output excess tissue fluid or obstruction of flow within veins or lymphatic

Edema

50

The hematologist system contains

Blood and bone marrow

51

The lymphatic system consists of

Lymphatic vessels and tissues

52

Normal WBC count

5-10 thousand

53

Normal RBC count

4.5-5.5 million

54

Platelet count

150-450 thousand

55

Process of manufacturing blood cells mostly occurring in bone marrow

Hematopoiesis

56

Glycoprotein hormone produced in kidney and child's liver which stimulates RBC production in bone marrow

Erythropoietin

57

Name three plasma proteins

Albumin
Fibrinogen
Globulin

58

largest plasma protein 60-80%
Maintains osmotic pressure

Albumin

59

Fibrinogen and prothrombin both aid in

Blood clotting

60

Clotting factor I

Fibrinogen

61

Clotting factor II

Prothrombin

62

Entrap a RBC and platelets to form a blood clot

Fibrin

63

Loss of albumin leads to

Edema
Hypotension
Death

64

Plasma protein formulated in liver

Globulin

65

Immunoglobulins are

Antibodies

66

Hemoglobin and iron are found in

RBC

67

Name three granular Leukocytes

Basophils
Eosinophils
Neutrophils

68

This granular leukocyte releases histamine and aids in allergic and inflammatory reactions

Basophils

69

Granular leukocyte
Survives 12hrs to 3 days
Releases chemicals to assist body in detoxifying foreign prep twins or engulfs invaders
Phagocytosis/endocytosis/pinocytosis

Eosinophils

70

Most abundant granular leukocyte

Neutrophils

71

Granular leukocyte
1st line of defense against bacteria
Only leukocyte that can move to infected area

Neutrophils

72

Name two a granular Leukocytes

Lymphocytes
Monocytes

73

Two types of lymphocytes

T lymphocyte
B lymphocyte

74

These a granular Leukocytes cells make antibodies that bind to pathogens so they can be destroyed

B lymphocytes

75

a granular leukocyte cell that aids in killing infected cells

T lymphocytes

76

A granular leukocyte
Transforms to macrophages or dendritic cells
Clean up after phagocytosis

Monocytes

77

Cessation of bleeding

Hemostasis

78

Clotting process

-Cut
-Platelets release thromboplaston
-This binds with glycoproteins and Ca ions to form prothrombin
-prothrombin to thrombin
-thrombin to fibrin
-fibrin nets RBC and platelets to form clot

79

Stationary clot

Thrombus

80

Clot that circulates

Embolus

81

Escape of blood from blood vessels

Hemorrhage

82

Clumping of blood cells

Agglutination

83

Blood group types are found

On membranes of RBCs

84

Eh factors are

Inherited antigen

85

A test that tests donors and recipient cells agglutination

Secondary circulatory system

86

Primary lymphatic system contains

Thymus gland
Bone marrow

87

Secondary lymphatic system contains

Encapsulated
non encapsulated tissues
Tonsils

88

Encapsulated tissue

Spleen and lymph nodes

89

Non encapsulated tissue

Intestinal lymphoid tissue and tonsils

90

Lymph capillaries

Carries 10% of plasma including WBC into lymphatic circulatory system

91

Fluid inside lymphatic circulatory system is called

Chyle or lymph

92

Lymphagion

Can move or stop flow of lymph

93

Filters out and destroys pathogens and swells bc of micro phage increase to destroy invaders

Lymph nodes

94

Small masses of non encapsulated lymphatic tissues that stand guard in all mucous membranes

Lymph nodules

95

Major lymphatic organs

Tonsils
Spleen
Thymus

96

Lymphatic tissue designed to filter blood with a role in blood cell formation along with liver in the fetus than later function is taken by bone marrow

Spleen

97

Destroys old RBC and acts as a reservoir for blood and is released dying hemorrhage
Contains lymphocytes and monocytes
Filters an destroys pathogens

Spleen

98

In fetus this organ entraps immature stem cells and aids in creating types of lymphocytes

Thymus

99

BBB
Blood brain barrier

Protects the brain
Semipermeable membrane that allows only certain substances into brain

100

Blood vessels pathway

Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venue led
Veins

101

Permits blood flow in one direction

Venous valves

102

Cardiac conduction pathway

SA node
AV node
Bundle if HIS
bundle branches
Perkiness fibers

103

The most abundant protein found in plasma and produced in liver

Albumin

104

Plasma is mostly made up of

Water

105

Any foreign substance or molecule entering the body that stimulates and immune response

Antigen

106

A protein substance that the body produces in respond to antigens

Antibody

107

Produces antigens

B lymphocyte

108

Antibodies can be called

Immunoglobulin
Gamma globulins

109

Type of antibody produced in initial exposure of antigen

Immunoglobulin IGM

110

Type of antibody created to protect fetus before birth against toxins bacteria and viruses

Immunoglobulin IGC

111

Type of antibody that protects mucosal surfaces: eyes, lungs , bronchi an tears etc

Immunoglobulin A
IGA

112

antibody that protects against allergic reactions

Immunoglobulin E
IGE

113

Antigen receptor

Immunoglobulin D
IGD

114

what do antibodies do

They act as a alerts

115

T lymphocytes are produced by

Thymus

116

Type of immunity in which T cells have proliferated and become capable of combining with specific foreign antigens

Cell mediated immunity

117

Immunity created by b lymphocytes and is the bodies resistance to circulating disease producing antigens and bacteria

Humoral immunity

118

Proteins that act as messengers to help regulate some of the functions of lymphocytes and macrophagesw during immune response

Cytokines

119

Immunity that helps against foreign invaders which include tears skin neutrophils and monocytes

Non specific immunity

120

Specific immunity is considered

Final line of defense

121

Immunity that is inherited

Inborn immunity

122

Acquired or adaptive immunity

Attained through natural or artificial resources

123

When a child is exposed to a develops disease and builds up antibodies

Naturally active immunity

124

Naturally passive immunity

Occurs between mother and unborn baby

125

Artificially active immunity

Through vaccine
Immunization

126

Artificially passive immunity

Antibodies created and injected into system

127

Immunity that changes antigen rendering it harmless to body
Lock and key

Antibody mediated immunity

128

Mechanism for antigen destruction by which activated compliments aid antibodies I'm destroying invaders

Compliment fixation

129

Affects of aging regarding t and B cells

Older adults have fewer T cells and B cells

130

Granular WBC leukocyte that show bright pink granules when stained

Eosinophils

131

The most numerous of WBC

Neutrophils

132

WBC that produces antibodies

Lymphocytes

133

A granular phagocytic WBC

Monocytes

134

The most numerous of all blood cells

Erythrocytes

135

Excessive bleeding

Hemorrhage

136

The process of stopping blood loss

Hemostasis

137

Rupture of Red Blood Cell

Hemolysis

138

The clumping of RBC when mixed with matching antibody

Agglutination

139

Transfer of blood from one person to another

Transfusion

140

An inherited disease that invoices a lack of clotting factors

Hemophilia

141

An inherited disease that causes destruction of erythrocytes

Sickle cell anemia

142

A cancer that results in abnormal production of white blood cells

Leukemia

143

A disease caused by a lack of vitamin B 12

Pernicious anemia

144

A disease that results from destruction of red bone marrow

Aplastic anemia

145

The liquid portion of blood is

Plasma

146

A protein that carries oxygen on RBC

Hemoglobin

147

The insole protein that forms a blood clot is

Fibrinogen - fibrin

148

A protein on the surface of a RBC that reacts with an antibody

Antigen

149

Any reduction in the amount of hemoglobin

Anemia

150

The test that measures volume percentage of RBC in whole blood

Hematocrit

151

Average PH of blood is

7.35-7.45

152

Clotting factor ?

Thrombin

153

Seg is

Neutrophil

154

The phagocytes among the WBC are

Monocytes and neutrophils

155

Childhood disease that destroys heart valve

Rheumatic fever

156

Damaged area of the heart caused by lack of blood supply

Infarction

157

Pain in the heart region caused by lack of blood to heart muscle

Angina

158

The closing of an artery

Occlusion

159

Pace maker of the heart

SA node

160

Contraction phase of cardiac cycle

Systole

161

Abnormal heart sound

Dysrythmia

162

Interruption of impulses through the conduction system of the heart is called

Heart block