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Flashcards in A&P 2.2 Sensation Deck (36)
0

Sensation

Defined

- Subconscious or conscious recognition of stimulus by the CNS

- Starts with a CHANGE IN THE ENVIRONMENT (internal or external)

- A sensory receptor is activated and converts the stimulus to an electrical signal going to the brain

1

Perception

Conscious awareness of a sensation as interpreted by the CNS

2

Process of sensation

4 parts

- Stimulus must occur
- Sensory receptors detect internal/external stimuli
- Each sensory neuron conducts a nerve impulse (action potential)
- Action potentials along a SENSORY NEURON stimulate neurons in the CNS

3

Adaptation

Decrease in strength of a PERCEIVED sensation during prolonged stimulus (hot tub, cold pool, smell)
It is variable

4

Adaption


Variations

Tactile and smell

Tactile (touch) and smell sensors adapt quickly

Sensitive to change, rather than continuous input

5

Perception

Variable

Nociceptors and proprioceptors

Nociceptors (pain) and proprioceptors (space)

Continue to trigger nerve impulses as long as stimulus present

6

Phantom limb

Sensation felt after limb is amputated

Projection

7

Projection

Perception of stimulus in the brain (illusion creation) at the site of the stimulus

8

Classification of sensory receptors

General

3 bullets

Each receptor responds to a specific type of stimulus (specialized)
Each neuron conducts an impulse that has a particular function
There are three different classifications and they overlap

9

classification of sensory receptors by

3

Location
cellular Characteristics
Stimulus

10

Location

3 types

Exteroceptors
Proprioceptors
Interocepters

11

Exteroceptors

Skin or cutaneous receptors

On or near the surface, skin and superficial fascia
Usually respond to external stimulus

Example: touch, pressure, pain, vibration, temperature

12

Proprioceptors

Spacial sensors

Located in skeletal muscles, joint capsules, tendons, ligaments and fascia
Monitors stretch and tension (tugs and pulls), mechanical
Provides us with info about physical orientation and movement

13

Interocepters

Visceral. Also called enterocepters
Located internally (visceral/organs)
Respond to internal stimuli (pressure, stretching and chemical changes in the viscera)

14

Pain felt where

Pain will reside in all three of the locations

Can be felt in skin, muscle and organs

15

Cellular characteristics

2

Simple
Complex

16

Cellular characteristics

Simple

2 types

Free nerve endings
Encapsulated nerve endings

17

Free nerve endings

Dendrites respond directly to stimulus

Example: nocicepters

18

Encapsulated nerve endings

Dendrites are wrapped in a connective tissue coating

Examples: mechanoreceptors and corpuscles

19

Cellular characteristics

Complex

Cellular receptors

Entire cells that detect stimuli and initiate sensory impulses

Examples: special senses (sight, smell, hearing, taste, balance)

20

Classification of sensory receptors

By stimulus


5

Mechanoreceptors
Thermoreceptors
Nocicepters
Photoreceptors
Chemoreceptors

21

Mechanoreceptors

Respond to mechanical deformation of tissue (tugs and pulls)

22

Thermoreceptors

Respond to changes in temperature

23

Nocicepters

Respond to pain; actual or near damage to tissue

24

Photoreceptors

Respond to visible light

25

Chemoreceptors

Respond to chemical

external: smell, taste,
internal: oxygen or carbon dioxide

26

Sensory modalities

2 types

General
Special

27

General senses

Body wide
Simple receptors
Includes the following: touch, pressure, pain, vibration, proprioception, visceral senses

28

Somatic senses

General

Sensory, include cutaneous and proprioception
Arise from skin, muscles, joints and fascia

29

Cutaneous sensations

3

Tactile sensations - requires contact ( touch, pressure, vibration)
Thermal sensations - requires temperature change
Pain sensors - nociception

30

Proprioception

Organs

31

Special senses

5

Smell
Taste
Vision
Hearing
Balance

32

General senses

2

Somatic senses
Visceral senses

33

Triceps brachii

A, I, O

A - extends the elbow


O - long head - infraglenoid tubercle;
lateral head - posterior proximal 1/2 humerus lateral to radial/spiral groove;
medial head - posterior distal 1/2 humerus medial to radial/spiral groove

I - olecranon process of ulna for all three heads

Named for three heads, arm

34

Bony landmarks

Olecranon
Infraglenoid tubercle
Condyles
Radial spiral ridge

35

Anconeus

A, I, O

A- extend the elbow

O- posterior aspect of the lateral condyle of the humerus

I - olecranon process and posterior, proximal surface of the ulna