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Flashcards in A&P 25 Deck (75):
0

Name four functions of the respiratory system

1- O2 and CO2 exchange
2-regulates body's PH
3- protection
4- speech production

1

Name 4 protective measures the respiratory system takes

-warms and moistens air before entering lungs
- mucus in nose traps foreign particles
- coughing and sneezing dislodges foreign particles
- yawning and swallowing helps equalize ear pressure

2

Nares

Nostrils

3

Nose
Sinuses
Pharynx
Larynx
And trachea are all part of the

Upper respiratory tract

4

A structure consisting of bone an cartilage that divides the internal nose into two sides or cavities

Nasal septum

5

Nerve endings in the septum that carries sense if smell impulses to the brain called

Olfactory nerve

6

What lines the nasal cavity and supplies blood vessels and aids in warming air as it enters the lungs

Mucous membranes

7

Hair and cilia functions

Remove foreign particles

8

Name for sinuses

Frontal
Maxillary
Ethmoid all
Spenoidal

9

Frontal sinuses are found

Above the eye socket

10

Maxillary sinuses are found

On each side if the nose

11

Ethmoidal sinuses are found

Between the eyes

12

Sphenoidal sinuses are found

On each side of nasal cavity

13

Another name for the throat
Separates into
Nasopharynx
&
Oropharynx

Pharynx

14

passageway for air only
Contains adenoids : pharyngeal tonsils

Nasopharynx

15

Carries food to the esophagus and air to the trachea
Contains palatine tonsils and linguinal tonsils

Oropharynx

16

Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
And adenoids all aid

In immunity to foreign objects

17

The pharynx consists of

Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Palatine tonsil

18

Trap door cartilage
Guards the entrance into the larynx. Closes when swallowing preventing food from entering into the lower respiratory system

Epiglottis

19

Contains the true vocal chords located within the larynx

Glottis

20

Contains
Thyroid glands and vocal chords and laryngeal prominence (thyroid cartilage)

Larynx

21

Another name for thyroid cartilage or laryngeal prominence

Adam's apple

22

Cartilage function in the larynx or trachea is to

Keep airway open at all times

23

Two thin triangle shape reed like folds in the trachea. Produce sound

Vocal chords

24

Another name for the larynx

Voice box

25

Another name for the trachea

Wind pipe

26

Air passes from the larynx to the

Trachea

27

Consists of c shaped hyaline cartilage an connective tissue which lines all the way to the cheat cavity behind the heart

Trachea

28

Lower respiratory tract consist of

Bronchi and the lungs

29

As the trachea enters into the thoracic cavity it divides into two smaller tubes called

Bronchi

30

As bronchi become smaller their walls become thinner the amount of cartilage decreases an they become

Bronchioles

31

At the end of the bronchioles are the

Alveoli

32

Alveolar ducts look like

Stems

33

Alveolar ducts look like

Grapes

34

The walls of the alveoli are composed of a single layer if cells called

Surfactant

35

Helps to prevent the alveolar walls from collapsing between breathes.
Single layer of phospholipids

Surfactant

36

The top area of the lung is called

Apex

37

The bottom later of the lung is called

Base

38

The lung consists of three lobes
Upper
Middle
Lower

Right lung

39

This lung consists of two lobes

Left lung

40

Area between the lung and the thorax

Mediastinum

41

Smooth double layered serous membrane sac covering the lungs

Pleura

42

Inner layer of the pleura

Visceral pleura

43

Middle layer of the pleura consists of pleural fluid

Pleural cavity/space

44

Outer layer of pleura

Parietal layer

45

Inflammation of the pleura

Pleurisy

46

Mechanical process of respiration that moves air to and from the alveoli

Ventilation

47

Inspiration

Breathing in

48

Expiration

Breathing out

49

Breaks up surface tension in the lung
Reduces friction and preserves the elastic property of lung tissue

Surfactant secreted by the alveoli

50

The heart lies in a impression called

Cardiac notch or cardiac impression

51

Done shaped muscle separating the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity

Diaphragm

52

Normal breathing

Eupnea

53

Difficulty breathing

Dyspnea

54

No breathing

Apnea

55

Dyspnea only when a person is lying down when a person sits up it is relieved

Orthopnea

56

Average Respirations

12-20 RPM

57

These muscles are located in between the ribs. You can find the apical heart beat between the 5th....

Intercostal muscles

58

Dying inhalation the diaphragm presses

Downward and forward

59

During exhalation the diaphragm

Rises to resting normal position

60

External respiration

Lung breathing
Pulmonary respiration
Within alveoli of lungs

61

Internal respiration

Cellular respiration
Cellular breathing

62

Metabolism waste product

Carbon dioxide

63

During exhalation these ions are released through the lungs into the air to maintain homeostasis and fluid balance

Bicarbonate
(Water&carbon dioxide)

64

Involuntary control center of respiration

Medulla & pons

65

Controls depth and rate of respiration

Medulla

66

Produces normal breathing rythm

Pons

67

Phonate

Speak

68

effects of aging on the respiratory system

Lose elasticity over time
Chest walls become stiffer and lungs don't expand as much

69

protective reflex does not work when a person is

Unconscious

70

The volume of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath

Tidal volume

71

Tidal volume

500ml

72

The max volume of air that can be inhaled after normal inhalation

IRV
Inspiratory reserve

73

The max volume of air that can be exhaled forcibly after normal exhalation

Exploratory reserve
ERV

74

The volume of air remaining in te Luna after max exhalation

Residual volume
RV