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Flashcards in A&P 26 Deck (155):
0

The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into usable materials for energy

Digestion

1

Food is broken down into smaller substances

Catabolism

2

Transferring broken down food elements into the circulation for transport

Absorption

3

After absorption when these elements are carried to the body's cells to be used for energy and building cells

Anabolism

4

Another name for digestive tract

GI tract
Alementary canal

5

Efficient food processing mechanism for digestion and absorption. This takes place where

Digestive tract

6

Final stage of digestion where elimination and defamation occurred

Egestion

7

Actions of the digestive system are controlled majority and minorly by

Majority: nervous system
Minorly: endocrine system

8

Another name for the mouth

Oral cavity

9

Roof of mouth consisting of hard and soft?

Palates

10

Hard palate is where and consists of what

Front of mouth
Bones and tissue

11

Soft palate is made of what and found where

Muscle tissue
Separates mouth from Nasopharynx

12

Name three salivary glands

Sublingual
Parotid
Submandibular

13

Sublingual salivary glands are found

Under tongue

14

Parotid salivary glands are found

Cheeks

15

Submandibular salivary glands are found

Under lower jaw

16

Saliva is made of

Water and thick mucous called mucin

17

Salivary glands are what type of glands

Endocrine glands

18

Lubricates and causes food particles to stick together to form a bolus of food

Mucin

19

Salivary amylase is an enzyme called

Ptyalin

20

What system controls your salivary glands

Nervous system

21

What does saliva contain to prevent infections

Lysosomes
Immunoglobulins

22

Starch (polysaccharide) begin breakdown where

Mouth

23

PH of saliva is

6.8

24

Name the chief functions of teeth

Mastication

25

The physical breaking of food

Mastication

26

Gum of mouth

Gingiva

27

Bulk of tooth material under enamel

Dentin

28

Tough skeletal muscle in mouth covered in mucous membrane

Tongue

29

Bottom of tongue, fold of mucous membrane which helps to attach tongue to floor of mouth

Frenulum

30

Pushing of food into mouth by tongue

Deglutination

31

Difficulty swallowing

Dysphagia

32

Wavelike contractions of the intestines by which they propel their contents trough the GI tract

Peristalsis

33

Gullet that lines from neck to stomach

Esophagus

34

Muscle that guards the stomach opening

Cardiac sphincter

35

Cardiac sphincter also known as

Lower esophageal sphincter

36

When LES doesn't relax and food cannot go into stomach

Achalasia

37

When the LES does not close properly and acid returns into the esophagus

Heart burn acid reflux

38

Food begins in the gastric or peptic phase of digestion which is the

Stomach

39

The stomach can expand to hold

8 cups of water

40

The stomach receives it's blood supply from

The celiac arteries

41

Controls the opening between the stomach and the duodenal portion of the small intestine

Pyloric sphincter

42

When stomach is empty it collapses and lies in folds called

Rugue

43

Another place in body containing Rugue besides the stomach

Bladder

44

Longing found under the muscular layer of stomach that contains nerves blood and lymph vessels

Sub mucosa

45

Layers of stomach wall

Mucosa inner
Submucosa
Muscles
Serous membrane

46

Milky substance after breakdown of food in stomach

Chyme

47

Emesis

Vomiting

48

20 ft long intestine separated by duodenum, jejunum, and ileum

Small intestine

49

1st portion of small intestine which secretes mucous to protect against acidic chyme and secretes bile

Duodenum

50

Peters patch of lymph nodes are found in

Ileum portion of small intestine

51

Sphincter like muscle that regulates back flow into the small intestine

Illeocal valve

52

Large intestine is divided into

Cecum
Colon
Rectum

53

Function of the large intestine

Water and vitamin k re absorption

54

Vitamin k is good for

Blood clotting

55

RLQ of body you find the cecum and appendix. This is the first portion of the lg intestine. When the appendix is infected by feces unable to fully drain out this will lead to

Appendicitis

56

Colon consists of three portions

Ascending
Transverse
Descending

57

What part of the colon absorbs fluid salts and vitamins

Ascending and transverse

58

Last portion of the colon that holds feces until defacation

Sigma

59

Egestion occurs

Rectum and anus

60

Pathway of digestion

Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Cardiac sphincter
Stomach
Pyloric sphincter
Small intestine
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Illeocal valve
Large intestine
Cecum
Colon ascending transverse and descending
Sigmoid
Rectum
Anus

61

Name four accessory organs

Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
Peritoneum

62

Bodies largest grandular organ

Liver

63

Liver found in what quadrant

Upper right quadrant

64

Liver receives blood supply from

Hepatic artery

65

Detoxifies blood by removing toxins and poisons , absorbs bilirubin from destruction of old RBCs

Liver

66

The liver stores glucose as

Glycogen

67

This organ stores fats and carbs and also fat soluble vitamins such as A,D,E,K and iron

Liver

68

The liver aids in formation of what vitamin

A

69

The liver forms what three plasma proteins

Albumin
Prothrombin
Globulins

70

The liver produces blue and the gallbladder

Stores the bile

71

Stores and releases bile as needed into the small intestine

Gallbladder

72

Removal of gallbladder for liver to take over its functions

Cholecystomy

73

System of passageways for the transport of bile from the liver to the gallbladder to intestine

Biliary apparatus

74

Passageway of the biliary apparatus

Liver
Hepatic duct
Cystic duct
Gallbladder for storage

75

Activates the gallbladder to release bile

Cholecystokinin

76

Cholithiasis

Gall stones

77

The liver synthesizes carbs fats and proteins and delivers to the heart through

Hepatic vein

78

Located behind the stomach
Secretes insulin, glucagon, sematostatin into bloodstream to regulate blood sugar levels

Pancreas

79

Exocrine functions of the pancreas

Produces pancreatic juices by its acinar cells

80

Acinar cells in the pancrease produce three main enzymes

Amylase
Trypsin
Lipase

81

Amylase aids in breakdown of

Starch

82

Trypsin aids in breakdown of

Proteins to amino acids

83

Lipase aids in breakdown of

Fats and lipids into triglycerides

84

Pancreas activates enzymes in the

Small intestine duodenum portion

85

Also found in pancreatic juice is

Water and bicarbonates HCO3-

86

Best PH levels for enzymes to react is

5 to 8

87

Serous membrane that covers and protects abdominal organs

Peritoneum

88

The peritoneum is made if three layers

Visceral
Peritoneal cavity with fluid
Parietal

89

Folds of the peritoneum that provides support and protection to the intestines are called

Mesentaries

90

What enzyme is found in the mouth

Salivary amylase ptyalin

91

Ptyalin is an enzymes used to breakdown

Starch into dextrin

92

In the stomach lining this aids in stimulation of HCI and pepsin

Mucin

93

Regulatory hormones found in pyloric glands

Gastrin

94

Parietal cells of stomach secretes

HCI and intrisic factor

95

HCI hydroxides carbs into

Glucose and fructose

96

Chief cells of stomach

Pepsinogen
Gastric lipase

97

Pepsinogen in stomach turns into pepsin and

Begins digestion of proteins into polypeptides

98

Gastric lipase digests

Fats into triglycerides mostly emulsifies fats

99

Enzyme found in kidneys

Renin

100

Renin regulates

Blood pressure

101

Storage areas of the stomach

Fondus and body of stomach

102

Part of stomach used for main digestion

Pyloris

103

When activated by HCI Pepsinogen turns into pepsin which aids in

Breakdown of proteins

104

Intrisic factor is necessary for absorption of

Vitamin b12

105

Regulatory hormone produced by stomach which stimulates secretion of HCI and Pepsinogen also helps pancreas to secrete enzymes and gallbladder to secrete bile

Gastrin
Pyloric glands

106

A hormone secreted by the jejunum and duodenum of small intestine

Cholecystokinin

107

Cholecystokinin activates the

Gallbladder to release bile into the duodenum

108

Cholecystokinin CCK stimulates the pancreas to

Secrete pancreatic juices

109

Small intestine lining enzymes sucrase Maltese and lactase used to break down

Carbs

110

Absorbs nutrients from the small intestine into the blood stream for delivery to cells

Villi or microvilli

111

Gluelike particles found in the small intestine that transports digested fats to the villi

Micelles

112

Dead end lymph capillaries within each villus that's absorbs fat soluble nutrients

Lacteals

113

Cellular respiration is a form of what type of metabolism

Catabolism

114

Muscle located between the esophagus and stomach

Cardiac sphincter

115

Difficulty in swallowing

Dysphagia

116

Finger like projection of the cecum that has no known function

Appendix

117

First portion of the small intestine which is 10-12 inches long

Duodenum

118

Process of transferring food elements into circulation for transportation

Absorption

119

Semiliquid that is formed in the stomach when food mixed with gastric juices

Chyme

120

First portion if the large intestine

Cecum

121

Ball of food mixed with saliva

Bolus

122

Process Of eliminating solid intestinal wastes from colon

Defacation

123

Breakdown of food into visible energy

Digestion

124

Longest portion of the large intestine

Colon

125

Swallowing process

Deglutination

126

Vomiting

Emesis

127

Greenish brownish liquid manufactured by liver and store in gallbladder

Bile

128

Extends from the pharynx to the stomach

Esophagus

129

Large sheet of serous membrane that covers many abdominal organs

Peritoneum

130

Secretions that digest food

Enzymes

131

Portion of the small intestine that is about 11 feet long

Ileum

132

Controls the opening between the stomach and the duodenal portion of the small intestine

Pyloric sphincter

133

Dead end lymph capillaries within each villus that absorbs fat soluble nutrients

Lacteals

134

Stores and releases bile as needed

Gall bladder

135

Act of chewing

Mastication

136

Middle section of the small intestine

Jejunum 8 ft long

137

Bodies largest grandular organ in the right upper abdominal cavity

Liver

138

Waves of contractions in the GI tract that move food along

Peristalsis

139

Particles that transport digested fats to the intestinal villi

Micelle

140

Folds in stomach

Rugae

141

Touch skeletal muscle covered in mucous membranes

Tongue

142

Finger like projections of intestines

Villi

143

secretion of saliva controlled by the nervous system

Salivation

144

CHO

Carbohydrates

145

Lower esophageal sphincter

Cardiac sphincter

146

Lower narrow portion of stomach

Pyloris

147

How long does it take to process food

48 hours

148

List functions of saliva

Break down starch
Assists swallowing
Softens and lubricates food
Dissolves some food components

149

Describe function of Rugae

Allows stomach to expand

150

Main function of large intestine

Re absorption

151

Describe livers role regarding vitamins

Storage

152

Exocrine function of pancreas

Acinar cells create pancreatic juice with enzymes to deliver to small intestine

153

Describe endocrine function of pancreas

Insulin glucagon sematostatin
Regulates blood sugar levels

154

Bile emulsifies

Fats