A&P 2.6 Withdrawal Reflex/brain functions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 2.6 Withdrawal Reflex/brain functions Deck (26)
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Flexor/withdrawal reflex

Response to pain

Reflex occurs SUBCONSCIOUSLY


7 steps

1

Stimulus

Pain

2

Sensory receptor

Nocicepter

Sensitive to actual or potential tissue damage

3

Sensory neuron

Conducts impulse from receptors to CNS

4

Integrating center

Sensory neurons synapse with interneurons to motor neurons = POLYSYNAPTIC

Sone interneurons conduct impulses up/down the cord to other segments = MULTI SEGMENTAL

5

Motor neurons

To ALL FLEXORS of a limb; ALL EXTENSORS ARE INHIBITED by reciprocal innervation

6

Effectors

Flexors

7

Response

Flexors are stimulated; EXTENSORS are inhibited

8

Flexor/withdrawal reflex

Additional info

- a painful stimulus causes tissue damage
- tissue damage stimulates a nocicepter that causes a sensory neuron to conduct an impulse
Interneurons conduct impulses up/down the cord
Motor neurons (ventral) exit the cord from many segments
All flexors of a limb contract causing withdrawal
All extensors of a limb relax by reciprocal inhibition

9

Nocicepters detect

Tissue or potential tissue damage rather than pain

10

Pain

Defined

Pain is the conscious perception of tissue damage

11

Brain stem

3 parts

Medulla oblongata
Pons
Midbrain

12

Medulla oblongata

Most inferior part
Continuous with spinal cord
Contains ascending (dorsal) and descending (ventral) tracts
Contains reflex centers

Vital and non-vital

13

Vital reflex


3

Breathing
Heart rate
Vasomotor

14

Non-vital reflexes

3

Coughing
Vomiting
Hiccuping

15

Pons

"Bridge"

Intermediate
Contains ascending and descending tracts
Contains vital reflex centers: breathing

16

Midbrain

Most superior, just below diencephalon
Contains ascending & descending tracts
Non-vital reflex centers: turning head in response to loud noises or peripheral movement

17

Parkinson's disease

Progressive disorder of the CNS

SHAKING TREMOR. Most common symptom

18

Diencephalon

2 parts

Thalamus
Hypothalamus

19

Functions of thalamus

6

Main sensory relay to cerebral cortex (SENSATION versus perception)
All sensation except smell passes through the thalamus
Produces conscious recognition of crude pain, temperature and touch
Emotions (pleasantness/unpleasantness)
Arousal and alertness
Complex reflex movements

20

Functions of the hypothalamus

6

Control of ANS
control of pituitary gland and production of hormones
Regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns
Regulation of eating and drinking
Control of body temperature
Regulation of circadian rhythms and states of consciousness

21

Cerebral cortex

General

"Bark" is part of the cerebrum
Outer layer of the cerebrum

22

Cerebral cortex

Largest and most superior division of the brain
Sensory perception - includes all somatic and special senses
Motor - voluntary motor control of skeletal muscles
Integration- all events that take place in the cerebrum between its reception of sensory impulses and its sending out of motor impulses.
CONSCIOUSNESS, LANGUAGE, SPEECH, EMOTIONS, MEMORIES

ALL AFFECTED BY ALCHOL

23

Cerebellum

Compares motor impulses from the cerebral cortex with proprioceptive from myofascia
Compares intended movements with what is actually happening
Smooths and coordinates complex sequences of skeletal muscle contractions including posture and balance

24

Levator scapula

A, I, O

A- elevate the scapula

O- Transverse process of C1-4

I - superior angle of the scapula

25

Brachioralradialis

A, I, O

O - lateral supra condylar ridge of the humerus

I - styloid process of the radius

A - flexion of elbow, returns forearm to neutral from supination or pronation