A&P 27 28 29 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 27 28 29 Deck (113):
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Filtration and removal plant
Excretory system

Urinary system

1

Major structures of the urinary system

Kidneys
Ureters
Bladder
Urethra

2

Extracts wastes from the blood, balances body fluids , an forms urine

Kidneys

3

Conducts urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

Ureters

4

Serves as a reservoir for urine

Bladder

5

Conducts urine from the bladder to the outside

urethra

6

An accumulation of water in tissues is known as

Edema

7

The kidneys are said to be retroperitoneal bc

They lie behind the peritoneum

8

Everyday 10% of your blood circulates through your

Kidneys

9

A notch through which the blood vessels nerves and ureter enter the kidneys

Hilium

10

Oh of urine

6

11

Outer reddish brown part of the kidney that extends from the outside of the kidney and in between the renal pyramids

Renal cortex

12

Renal pyramid

Renal medulla

13

Renal tubules
Loops of henle
Collecting tubules

Renal medulla
Renal pyramid

14

The major role of kidneys is to

Filter water soluble wastes out of blood

15

Functional units of the kidneys

Nephrons

16

Cells that form urine

Nephrons

17

How many nephrons are in each kidney

Millions

18

Han beings can survive using only one third of their

Nephrons

19

Come shaped structures in the kidney

Renal medulla
Renal pyramid

20

At one end of each nephron is a clotted cluster of tuft capillaries called

Glomerulus

21

Membrane of the glomerulus

Mesangium

22

The glomerulus is enclosed in a structure called

The bowmans capsule

23

Pressure filters large salutes out of the blood through small pores

Bowmans capsules

24

The glomerulus and the bowmans capsule together are known as

Renal corpuscle

25

Which arteriole enters the bowmans capsule

Afferent

26

This layer of the glomerulus has large openings that allow all blood components except RBC's to pass through to middle layer

Epithelium layer

27

Middle layer of glomerulus
Prevents passage of large proteins through it by filtration

Basement membrane

28

Thin porous membrane that covers the basement membrane of the glomerulus

Epithelium
Capsular membrane

29

The epithelial capsular membrane of the glomerulus is covered in cells called

Podocytes

30

Pedecils are extensions of Podocytes on the surface of the epithelial membrane which

Restrict medium sized proteins from entering

31

Causes alteration in te basement membrane reducing the filtering abilities of the kidneys

Glomerulonephritis
Diabetic nephropathy

32

First portion tubule where glucose
Amino acids salts and are actively transported using ATP accords the membranes back to blood peri tubular capillaries

PCT
Proximal consulates tubule

33

What enters the bowmans capsule

Sodium
Glucose
Amino acids

34

What doesn't get filtered into the bowmans capsule

RBC's

35

Loops of henle s purpose ?

Pumps out electrolytes salts potassium into renal medulla using ATP which allows water to pump out as well

36

Final portion of nephron

Distal consulates tubules

37

Site of tubular secretion

DCT
Distal consulates tubule

38

End of nephron that secretes creatinine and hydrogen ions while also re absorbing sodium water and remainder of glucose

DCT
Distal consulates tubule

39

After blood leaves DCT, it moves into

Collecting tubules
Or medullary collecting duct

40

A hormone important in blood pressure regulation

Renin

41

When blood pressure falls what releases renin into blood

Juxtaglomular apparatus
JGA

42

Renin released into blood stream stimulates formation of

Angiotensin I

43

Angiotensin I in the presence of converting enzyme I'm the lungs turns into

Angiotensin II

44

Angiotensin II causes blood vessels to

Constrict and raise blood pressure

45

Angiotensin II stimulates secretion of aldosterone from adrenal cortex that promotes

Sodium and water retention to further elevate blood pressure

46

Excretion of the RAA system in urine is

Potassium

47

ADH in response to angiotensin II increases re absorption of water in

kidney tubule collecting duct

48

Angiotensin II also causes a person to become more

Thirsty

49

Hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates stem cells in red bone marrow to increase formation of RBCs

Erythropoietin

50

Hypoxia in tissues stimulates production of

Erythropoietin in kidneys

51

ESRD
End stage renal disease

Erythropoietin not produced ending in anemia

52

Two hormones created by kidneys

Renin
Erythropoietin

53

Efferent arteriole become peri tubular capillaries and returns blood to

Inferior vena cava of heart

54

Kidneys also convert which vitamin to useful form

D

55

Carries urine down to urinary bladder for storage

Ureter

56

Come shaped structure on medulla of kidney

Renal pyramid

57

The outer portion of kidney

Renal cortex

58

Te part of the nephron in which filtration occurs

Bowmans capsule

59

The notch on the medial border of the kidney where blood vessels an the ureter connect with the kidney

Hilus

60

A funnel shaped basin that forms the upper end of the ureter

Renal pelvis

61

The part of the nephron between the convulated tubules

Loop of henle

62

The term that describes the capillaries around the nephron

Peri tubular capillaries

63

An extension of the renal pelvis that collects urine

Calyx

64

The part of the nephron that releases renin

JGA
Juxtaglomuler apparatus

65

A term that describes the location of the kidneys

Retroperitoneal

66

A dropping of the kidney

Ptosis

67

The presence of blood in urine

Hematuria

68

The use of shock waves to shatter kidney stones

Lithotripsy

69

The presence of puss in urine

Pyuria

70

Inflammation of the bladder

Cystitis

71

Inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidneys

Pyelonephritis

72

Renal calci
Pyelolethiasis

Kidney stones

73

Accumulation of nitrogen wastes products from the body

Uremia

74

A method for removing waste products from the bood and body

Dialysis

75

The tube that conducts urine from the bladder to the outside of the body

Urethra

76

The small coiled tube that is the functional unit of the kidney is

Nephron

77

The cluster of capillaries within the bowmans capsule

Glomerulus

78

The common term for micturition

Urination

79

Most materials that enter the nephron are returned to circulation by a process called

Active transport

80

The main nitrogen waste material

Urea

81

Materials diffuse from the glomerulus into bowmans capsule by what process

Filtration

82

Outside opening of the urethra

Urethral meatus

83

An enzyme produced by the kidney that acts to raise blood pressure

Renin

84

Average daily output

1,000-1500 mL

85

In males
Produces spermatozoa through a process called spermatogenesis

Testes

86

Holds testes and regulates temp

Scrotum

87

The beginning of the spermatic chord

Ductus deferens

88

The functional unit of the testes where sperm cells are produced and matured

Seminiferous tubules

89

Small clusters of specialized endocrine cells between the seminiferous tubules that secrete testosterone and other androgens that also produce sperm

Interstitial cells

90

Sperm also

.

91

Epydidymus
Ductus differentia
Ejaculatory ducts all are part of te

Ductal system

92

Comma shaped organ attaché posteriorly to testes which store sperm cells which mature and develop tail and mobility

Epididymis

93

Common site for herniation in men

Inguinal canal

94

what is cut and tied during vasectomy

Vas deferens
Ductus deferentia

95

Involuntarily contracts spermatic chord to bring testicles closer to body for warmth

Cremasturic reflex

96

Temperature to maintain sperm production

95F or 35C

97

Undescended testes that do not move into scrotal sac, usually premature infants

Cryptorchidism

98

Route of sperm

Testes (seminiferous tubules)
Epididymis
Ductus deferens
Ejaculatory duct where seminal vesicles releases hormones
Inguinal canal
Urethra

99

Glans penis

Penis head

100

Convulated sac shaped glands located posterior to urinary bladder that secrete semen which is a fluid medium for aperm

Seminal vesicle

101

Finite shaped muscular structure lying below bladder that adds alkaline secretion to semen which increases sperms motility

Prostate gland

102

Sperm cell also called

Gamete

103

Painful or difficult menstruation

Dysmenorrhea

104

Surgical removal of uterus

Hysterectomy

105

The make go bad is

Testes

106

Removal of breast

Mastectomy

107

Inflammation of uterine tube

Salpingitis

108

A fold of membrane near the opening of vaginal canal

Vulva

109

Fringe like extensions of the oviduct

Fimbrae

110

Thin membrane over the vaginal orifice opening that can close it completely

Hymen

111

The uppermost portion of the uterus

Fondus

112

Area in which bartholin glands open

Vestibule