A&P 3.10 Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 3.10 Immunity Deck (36):
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Extensor digitorum longus

A, I , O

Origin: lateral condyle of tibia and superior 2/3 anterior margin of fibula

Insertion: by four tendons to dorsal surface of bases of proximal, middle, and digital phalanges of toes 2-5

Action: extension/dorsiflexion of the 4 lateral toes

1

Extensor hallicis longus

A, I, O

Origin: anteromedial surface of the fibula and interosseous membrane

Insertion: base of distal phalanx of great toe (hallicis)

Action: extension/dorsiflexion the big toe

2

Lymphocytes

T - cells- cancer & virus- attack directly
B - cells - bacteria - antibody producing before attack
NK- attack everything that is not self

3

Monocytes

Monocytes in blood stream
Macrophages in tissue
Can be either fixed/stationary or wandering/roaming about

4

WBC production

Produced by pluripotent stem cells in red bone marrow
Using hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis

5

Non-specific immunity

General defense that lacks specific responses
Responds same way regardless of invader
Acts against anything not recognized as self

INNATE IMMUNITY

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Mechanisms of nonspecific defense

Species resistance - human properties that protect the body from pathogens that are not of the same species

7

First line of defense

Mechanical and physical barriers

Epidermis and mucous membranes - prevent foreign substances from entering the internal environment

NON-SPECIFIC

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Second line of defense

Inflammation
Phagocytosis
Neutrophils
Macrophages
Natural killer cells
Interferon
Complement

NON-SPECIFIC

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Inflammation

Isolates pathogen and stimulates fast arrival immune cells

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Phagocytosis

Ingestion and destruction of pathogen by

Neutrophils
Macrophages

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Neutrophils

Phagocytosis
First phagocytes to arrive

12

Macrophages

Monocytes in blood, macrophages in tissue
Capable of consuming many pathogens
Arrive second, take longer to arrive, smaller in numbers than neutrophils but they eat more

13

Natural killer cells

Non-specific because of wise variety of possible actions
Lymphocytes that tend to kill viruses and cancer
Attack directly

14

Proteins



Interferon
Complement

15

Interferon

Protein
Produced by cells after viral infection
Inhibit the spread of the virus

16

Complement

Protein
Enzymes that cause "lysis" or rupture of foreign cell

17

Third line of defense

Specific or adaptive immunity

Mechanisms by which the immune system is able to recognize, remember and destroy specific types of bacteria or toxins

T and B cells (lymphocytes) derived from hematopoietic stem cells

RECOGNIZE, REMEMBER AND DESTROY

18

T cells

Attack pathogens more directly
T cell immune mechanisms are classified as CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY

19

Development of T cells

T cells start in red bone marrow
Go to thymus gland to mature
Migrate to lymph nodes and spleen as mature T cells
T cells defend from viral disease and cancer

20

Cytotoxic

Specific T cells cause contact killing/release of macrophages which then eat cells

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Memory

Remain in lymphatic tissue and recognize the original invading antigen to initiate a faster reaction than during first invasion

22

Helper & suppressor

Help regulate T & B cells

23

Cell mediated immunity

T cell immunity

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Development of B cells

Antibody mediated/humoral immunity
B cells do not attack pathogens themselves but instead produce molecules called antibodies
The antibodies attack pathogens or direct other cells such as phagocytes, to attack them
B cell mechanism are classified as anti-body mediated immunity

25

Development of B cells

Occurs as a fetus in the yolk sac. Then in the bone marrow or liver

26

Antibody

Plasma protein (immunoglobulin)
A native molecule normally present in the body
Designed to react to or with specific antigen

27

Antigen

Antibody generating
Macromolecules (large) that as a result of contact induce the immune system to make certain responses
Most antigens are formed proteins
Many are located on the walls or outer membranes of micro-organisms, or the outer coat of virus

28

Antigen-antibody reactions

Antibodies fight disease first by recognizing substances that are foreign or abnormal
Antibodies bind producing one or more effects
These effects can transform antigens that are toxins into harmless substances, or make antigens stick together for phagocytize cells to dispose of more rapidly

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Disorders of the immune system

Either over react to antigens or fail to react to antigens to produce disease

30

Hypersensitivities

Over reactions
A type of inappropriate or excessive response of the immune system

31

Hypersensativities

Allergy
Autoimmunity
Isoimmunity

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Allergy

Hypersensitivity to harmless environmental antigens

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Autoimmunity

An inappropriate or excessive response to self antigens

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Isoimmmunity

A normal reaction (often undesirable) of the immune system to antigens from a different individual of the same species (pregnancy, tissue transplant)

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Deficiencies of the immune system

AIDS & congenital deficiency of the immune system